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Au Early Kt'*oluti<)(iar> h la^ 

The Lil)erty Tree. 









R J9t8 L 


Published September /g/7 


I. The Flags that brought the Colonists . . i 

Flags under which the early colonists sailed — The 
English "ancient flag" — The "meteor flag," "Union 
Jack," or " King's Flag " — Endicott cuts the cross from 
the English flag — The militia object to the cross on the 
flag — A flagless fort — Dr. Cotton's decision. 

II. The Pine-Tree Flag and Others .... 8 
Flags common among the colonists — The New 
England Alliance — The pine-tree flag and coins — 
Flags of the militia — The red coat flag. 

III. Liberty and Liberty Poles 14 

The demand for liberty — Opposition to the Stamp 
Act — Oliver hanged in efiigy — The Liberty Tree in 
Boston — The liberty pole in New York — The Albany 
plan — The snake design. 

IV. The Land of Many Flags 20 

The Bedford flag — Flags at the beginning of the 
Revolution — Sergeant Jasper saves the flag — The 
rattlesnake on the flag. 

V. When Washington went to Cambridge . . 27 

The Philadelphia Light Horse Troop — The army at 
Cambridge — The backwoodsmen — Indians off^er 
their services — General Putnam unfurls a scarlet flag 
— The Liberty Tree. 


VI. The "Grand Union Flag" 32 

The "Grand Union Flag" — Possible sources of the 
design — First raised in Somerville — Flags on sea and 
land — Flag hoisted over the Alfred by John Paul 
Jones — Franklin's letters of marque. 

VII. The First United States Flag .... 39 

The flag of the United States as decreed by Congress 

— The Betsy Ross flag — Significance of the Colors — 
Captain Jones put in command of the Ranger — The 
' ' quilting party ' ' — The Drake strikes her colors to the 
Ranger — The United States flag is saluted by the 
French — The flag goes down with the Bon Homme 

VIII. Flags One would have liked to see . . 48 

The Fort Stanwix flag — Pulaski's banner — The 
first Fourth of July celebration — General use of 
"thirteen" — Copley's delay to paint in the flag — 
A Nantucket skipper carries the flag to London — 
The last battle of the Revolution — The New Haven 
peace rejoicing. 

IX. The Flag of Fifteen Stripes and Fifteen Stars 56 

The flag of fifteen stripes and fifteen stars decreed by 
Congress — Worn by "Old Ironsides" — Leads against 
Tripoli — Seen at Constantinople — Among the In- 
dians of the Louisiana Territory — "The Star-Span- 
gled Banner" — Marking the birthplace of Wash- 

X. The Star-Spangled Banner 63 

Congress decrees the present flag — No law for the ar- 
rangement of the stars — The manufacture of bunting 

— Flags for the navy — Flags for the War Department 

— "Old Glory." 


XI. The Flag in War 70 

The flag at Chapultepec — The surrender of Fort Sum- 

ter — The flag raised again at Fort Sumter 
Arizona flag of the Rough Riders. 



XII. The Flag in Peace 

Perry opens Japan to the world — Raising the flag over 
the legation in Sweden — Hauling down the flag in 
Cuba — The flag at the North Pole — The flag on 
Westminster Palace. 


Flag Anniversaries 90 


The Star-Spangled Banner 

The Flag in the Darkness 

A Song for Flag Day . 

The Flag goes by 

What the Flag stands for 

Union and Liberty 

Your Country and your Flag 

Francis Scott Key 93 

. Benjamin Harrison 95 

Wilbur D. Neshit 96 

Henry Holcomh Bennett 98 

Henry Cabot Lodge 100 

Oliver Wendell Holmes lOl 

. Edward Everett Hale 103 

The Home Flag . . Henry Wadsworth Longfellow 104 

Old Flag Hubbard Parker 105 

Britannia to Columbia .... Alfred Austin 107 

Makers of the Flag . . . Franklin K. Lane 109 

Our Flag Margaret Sangster 112 

Our History and our Flag William Backus Guitteau 113 

The American Flag . . Joseph Rodman Drake II 5 

The Flag of our Country . . Robert C. Winthrop 116 

America Samuel Francis Smith 1 17 

Index 119 




More than three hundred years ago a little 
sailing vessel set out from Holland, crossed the 
Atlantic Ocean, and followed down our coast 
from Greenland. Its captain, Henry Hudson, was 
in search of a quick and easy route to Asia, and 
when he entered the mouth of the river that is 
named for him, he hoped that he had found a 
strait leading to the Asiatic coast. He was dis- 
appointed in this, but the Indians welcomed 
him, the mountains were rich in forests, and the 
ground was fertile. *'It is the most beautiful 
land in all the world," declared the enthusiastic 

Henry Hudson was an Englishman, but he 
sailed in the employ of the Dutch East India 
Company, and soon the flag of this Company was 
well known along the Hudson River. It was the 
old flag of Holland, three horizontal stripes, of 


orange, white, and blue, with the initials of the 
Company on the white stripe. Hudson had not 
found a new route to Asia, but he had opened the 
way for the fur- trade. In a few years the Dutch 
had estabhshed trading-posts as far north as 
Albany. They had also founded a city which we 
call *'New York," but which they named "New 
Amsterdam." So it was that in 1609 the Dutch 
flag first came to the New World. 

Nearly thirty years after the voyage of Henry 
Hudson, a company of Swedes made a settlement 
on the Delaware River. This had been planned 
by the great Gustavus Adolphus, King of Sweden. 
''That colony will be the jewel of my kingdom," 
he said; but the ''Lion of the North" was slain 
in battle, and his twelve-year-old daughter Chris- 
tina had become queen. That is why the loyal 
Swedes named their little fortification Fort 
Christiana, and over it they raised the flag of 
their country, a blue banner with a yellow 

In course of time the Swedes were over- 
powered by the Dutch, and then the Dutch by 
the English; so that before many years had 
passed, the only flag that floated over the "Old 
Thirteen" colonies was that of England. This 
was brought across the sea by the settlers of 
our first English colony, Jamestown, in Virginia. 


Moreover, they had the honor of sailing away 
from England in all the glories of a brand-new 
flag made in a brand-new design. The flag of 
England had been white with a red upright 
cross known as ''St. George's Cross"; but a new 
king, James I, had come to the throne, and the 
flag as well as many other things had met with 
a change. James was King of Scotland by birth, 
and the Scotch flag was blue with the white 
diagonal cross of St. Andrew. When James be- 
came King of England, he united the two flags 
by placing on a blue background the upright 
cross of St. George over the diagonal cross of St. 
Andrew; and he was so well pleased with the 
result that he commanded every English vessel 
to bear in its maintop this flag, "joined together 
according to the form made by our own heralds," 
the King declared with satisfaction. It was the 
custom at that time to call "ancient" whatever 
was not perfectly new, and therefore the flag used 
before James became king was spoken of as the 
"ancient flag," while the new one became the 
" King's Flag" or the " Union Jack." This change 
was made in the very year when the grant for 
Virginia was obtained, and therefore the little 
company of settlers probably sailed for America 
with the " King's Flag" in the maintop and the 
"ancient flag" in the foretop. 


On land, among the colonists, sometimes one 
flag was floated and sometimes the other. In 
Massachusetts the red cross of St. George seems 
to have been much in use ; but before long that 
red cross began to hurt the consciences of the 
Puritans most grievously. To them the cross 
was the badge of the Roman Catholic Church. 
Still, it was on the flag of their mother country, 
the flag that floated over their forts and their 
ships. The Puritan conscience was a stern mas- 
ter, however, and when one day John Endicott 
led the little company of Salem militia out for 
a drill, and saw that cross hanging over the 
governor's gate, the sight was more than he 
could bear, and he — but Hawthorne has al- 
ready told the story : — 

Endicott gazed around at the excited countenances 
of the people, now full of his own spirit, and then 
turned suddenly to the standard-bearer, who stood 
close behind him. 

"Officer, lower your banner!" said he. 

The officer obeyed; and brandishing his sword, 
Endicott thrust it through the cloth, and, with his 
left hand, rent the red cross completely out of the 
banner. He then waved the tattered ensign above his 

"Sacrilegious wretch!" cried the High Church- 
man in the pillory, unable longer to restrain him- 
self, "thou hast rejected the symbol of our holy 


"Treason, treason!" roared the Royalist in the 
stocks. "He hath defaced the King's banner!" 

"Before God and man, I will avouch the deed," 
answered Endicott. "Beat a flourish, drummer! — 
shout, soldiers and people! — in honor of the ensign 
of New England. Neither Pope nor Tyrant hath 
part in it now!" 

With a cry of triumph the people gave their sanc- 
tion to one of the boldest exploits which our history 

Endicott was one of the court assistants, but 
he was now removed from his position and for- 
bidden to hold any public office for one year. He 
was fortunate in being permitted to retain his 

Endicott had been punished, but the Puritan 
conscience was not yet at rest, and now many of 
the militia declared that they did not think it 
right to march under the cross. The whole mi- 
litia could not well be punished, and the com- 
missioners for military affairs were as doubtful 
as the honest militia men about what should be 
done. "We will leave it to the next General 
Court to decide," they said, **and in the mean- 
time no flags shall be used anywhere." 

This seemed a comfortable way to settle the 
question, but unluckily there was a fort on Castle 
Island at the entrance to Boston Harbor, and 
when an English vessel came sailing in, its cap- 


tain refused to pay any attention to a fort with- 
out a flag. Then the officer in command rose to 
his dignity and made the ship — maybe with the 
aid of a ball across her bows — strike her colors. 
The captain complained to the authorities that 
the commandant of this flagless fort had insulted 
his flag and his country. The authorities were 
just a bit alarmed. To insult a flag and a coun- 
try was a serious matter. ''What shall we do to 
make amends?" they queried. ''Let the officer 
who proffered the insult come on board of my 
vessel and say in the presence of the ship*s com- 
pany that he was in fault," replied the captain. 
This was done, and the sky cleared. 

But the troubles of the colonists were by no 
means over. The mate of another vessel de- 
clared with considerable emphasis that these 
people were all rebels and traitors to the King. 
Surely the thought of such a report as this 
going back to England from a tiny colony cling- 
ing to the edge of the continent was enough to 
alarm the boldest. Discussions were held, and 
Dr. John Cotton was appealed to. 

A canny man was this Dr. John Cotton, and 
he decided that inasmuch as the fort belonged 
to the King, it was proper that it should dis- 
play the King's Flag, whatever it might be, — 
"while vessels are passing," he added shrewdly; 


but that, as for the militia, each company 
might have its own colors, and not one of 
them need bear a cross. So the great tempest 
passed by. 



In some of the colonies at least, the people must 
have led a rather somber life, with little pleasure, 
much hard work, and much discomfort ; but they 
fairly reveled in flags. The Indians in their war- 
fare preferred to hide behind trees rather than to 
flourish banners, and the white men soon learned 
to follow their example. Nevertheless, it always 
seemed to the minds of the colonists a little 
irregular and out of place not to carry a flag of 
some sort when they were setting out on an ex- 

Probably we do not know one in twenty of all 
the designs for banners that entered the fertile 
minds of these colonists, but they were so nu- 
merous 'that if they had all been displayed at the 
same time, they would have almost hidden the 
settlements. Not all colonists were as afraid of 
a cross as were the good folk of Salem. In New- 
bury, Massachusetts, a certain company of foot 
rejoiced in a flag of vivid green. In the upper 
corner next the staff was a square of white con- 
taining a red cross. The kindly councilor, who 


had ordered the flag to be made in England 
"with all convenient speed," evidently had some 
sense of humor, for he wrote at the end of his 
letter to the company, "The number of bullets 
to be put into your colors for distinction may be 
left out at present without damage in the mak- 
ing of them." Another flag, belonging to a com- 
pany of Massachusetts cavalry, seems to have 
been something quite out of the common, for it 
was of damask and silk and adorned with silver 
fringe. A real artist must have used his brush 
upon it, for the bill read, " For painting in oyle on 
both sides a Cornett on rich crimson damask, 
with a hand and sword and invelloped with a 
scarf e about the arms of gold, black and silver" ; 
and for all that gorgeousness, generously painted 
"on both sides, "the charge was the moderate one 
of £5 25. 6d, This was made for what was known 
as the "Three County Troop," composed of cav- 
alry from Essex, Middlesex, and Suffolk Coun- 
ties in Massachusetts, and was probably used in 
King Philip's War. 

Now, wherever a discoverer planted the sole 
of his foot, he took possession for his sovereign of 
all the land in sight and all the land which joined 
that land. Naturally, the claims of the colo- 
nies soon conflicted. The good folk of New Eng- 
land made an alliance to defend themselves 


against the Dutch, Swedes, and French. They 
managed to be good alHes for forty years with- 
out a flag. Then came one brilliant enough to 
make up for the delay, and sent to them across 
the sea by no less a man than King James II him- 
self. This was of white with a St. George's cross of 
red. In the center of the cross was a golden crown 
and under it the King's monogram in black. A 
few years later matters in England had changed. 
King James II had proved to be a very poor sort 
of sovereign, and it was made clear to him that 
for his health and comfort — possibly for his head 
— it would be wise for him to leave the country. 
This he did in alarm and at full speed, tossing 
the royal seal into the Thames on his way. It 
is small wonder that New Englanders preferred 
a new flag. The only marvel is that they waited 
so long a time before getting it. When it was 
finally chosen, it proved to be red with a white 
canton or union cut by a red St. George's cross 
into four squares. In one of these squares was the 
representation of a pine tree. This representa- 
tion can hardly have been a work of art, for one 
historian says unkindly of it that it " no more re- 
sembled a pine tree than a cabbage." Evidently 
the brave colonists were not artists. Neverthe- 
less, even if the good folk of Massachusetts could 
not draw a pine tree, they were fond of it, and 


their General Court decreed that it should be 
stamped upon the coins minted in that colony. 
Now it was the right of the King to coin money, 
and when Charles II heard that the ambitious 
colonists were making it for themselves, he was 
not pleased. ''But it is only for their own use,'* 
said a courtier who favored the colonies, and 
taking a New England coin from his pocket, he 
showed it to the King. "What tree is that?" 
demanded the aggrieved monarch. "That," said 
the quick-witted courtier, "is the royal oak which 
saved Your Majesty's life." "Well, well," said 
the King, "those colonists are not so bad after 
all. They're a parcel of honest dogs!" Perhaps 
they were, even if their likenesses of pine trees 
could not be distinguished from cabbages and 
oaks. Hawthorne's story, "The Pine-Tree Shil- 
lings," is written about this inartistic coinage. 

So the story of the flags went on. Besides the 
English flag every little company of militia had 
its standard. One flag bore a hemisphere in the 
corner in place of a pine tree, and another bore 
nothing but a tree. The colonists did not trouble 
themselves about being artistic or choosing colors 
of any special significance; if the ground of the 
flag was of one color and the cross or whatever 
other figure was chosen was of another, they 
were satisfied. Charleston, South Carolina, had 


a specially elegant flag — blue with a silver cres- 
cent — to use on "dress-up" days. After a time 
even the Indians were sometimes furnished with 
flags, for one kindly governor gave them a Union 
Jack as a protection. He presented them also with 
a red flag to indicate war and a white one as a 
sign of peace; and probably the fortunate In- 
dians felt with all this magnificence quite like 
white folk. 

In 1745, when that remarkable expedition 
of New Englanders — which had "a lawyer for 
contriver, a merchant for general, and farmers, 
fishermen, and mechanics for soldiers" — set 
ofT to capture Louisburg from the French, they 
sailed proudly away under a flag whereon was 
written in Latin, "Never despair, for Christ is 
our leader." It was on this same expedition that 
a new flag was hoisted, the like of which was 
never seen before. An officer discovered that a 
battery on the shore of the harbor was appar- 
ently vacant. There was no flag flying from the 
staff and no smoke rising from the chimney. It 
looked as if that battery might be taken easily. 
On the other hand it was also quite possible 
that this was a ruse and was meant to decoy 
the colonists within. The oflicer concluded to 
run the risk — of losing the life of some one else. 
Holding up a bottle of brandy before the thirsty 


gaze of an Indian, he said, "If I give you this, 
will you creep in at that embrasure and open the 
gate?" The red man grunted assent, crept in, 
and opened the gate. Then the officer and 
twelve men took possession. Soon a message 
went from the officer to his general as follows: 
"May it please your honor to be informed that 
by the grace of God and the courage of thirteen 
men, I entered the royal battery about nine 
o'clock, and am awaiting for a reinforcement 
and a flag." Sometimes the colonists were want- 
ing in the grace of patience, and this was one of 
the occasions. A soldier, tired of delay, decided 
that, although he could not provide reinforce- 
ments, he could provide a flag; so up the staff 
he clambered with a red coat in his teeth. He 
nailed it to the top of the staff, and it swung 
out in the wind, much to the alarm of the citi- 
zens, who sent one hundred men in boats to re- 
capture the battery. The hundred men fired, but 
the brave little company kept them from land- 
ing and held their position till the general could 
send help. 



After the middle of the eighteenth century 
there was much talk among the colonies of lib- 
erty. It is possible that not all the people were 
quite clear in their minds what that "liberty** 
might mean ; but whatever it was, they wanted it. 
England required nothing more of her colonies 
than other nations required of theirs. The colo- 
nies asked nothing of England that would not be 
granted to-day as a matter of course. The diffi- 
culty was that the mother country was living 
in the eighteenth century, while the colonists 
were looking forward into the nineteenth. A de- 
mand for liberty was in the air. The pole on 
which a flag was hung was not called a flag pole, 
but a liberty pole. 

Most of the flags on these liberty poles bore 
mottoes, many of them decidedly bold and de- 
fiant. When the Stamp Act was passed, the 
wrath of the people rose, and now they knew 
exactly what they wanted — "No taxation 
without representation." The stamped paper 
brought to South Carolina was carefully stowed 


away in a fort. Thereupon three volunteer com- 
panies from Charleston took possession of the 
fort, ran up a blue flag marked with three white 
crescents, and destroyed the paper. New York's 
flag had one word only, but that one word was 
"Liberty." Portsmouth, New Hampshire, had 
a banner inscribed ''Liberty, Property, and 
no Stamps." In Newburyport, Massachusetts, 
there was a regular patrol of men armed with 
stout sticks. "What do you say, stamps or no 
stamps?" they demanded of every stranger, and 
if he had a liking for a whole skin, he replied em- 
phatically, "No stamps." One wary newcomer 
replied courteously, "I am what you are," and 
was uproariously cheered. 

In going from one colony to another, it was 
not uncommon for a man to get a passport from 
the sons of Liberty to attest to his standing as a 
"Liberty man." When the stamps made their 
first appearance, Boston tolled her church bells 
and put her flags at half-mast. Indeed, a new 
sort of flag appeared in the shape of an efligy of 
Oliver, the stamp distributor, swinging from the 
bough of a great elm which stood by the main 
entrance to town. The Chief Justice ordered 
this image to be removed. "Certainly," replied 
the people politely, "we will take it down our- 
selves this very evening." So they did, but they 


laid it upon a bier and marched in a long pro- 
cesssion through the old State House. Here, in 
the Council Chamber, the Governor and his 
Council were deliberating. Shouts came up from 
below, "Liberty, Property, and no Stamps!" and 
"Death to the man who offers a piece of stamped 
paper to sell!" "Beat an alarm," the Chief 
Justice commanded the colonel of the militia. 
"But I cannot," replied the colonel, "my drum- 
mers are in the mob." The procession marched 
on, burned the effigy in front of the distributor's 
house, gave three rousing cheers, and went home. 
In New York, when the rumor spread that a ship 
laden with stamps was approaching, all the ves- 
sels in the harbor put their colors at half-mast. 
When every distributor of stamps had re- 
signed his office, there was another outburst of 
banners. Charleston, South Carolina, hoisted a 
liberty flag, surmounted by a branch of laurel. 
The tree in Boston on which the effigy of the 
stamp distributor had been hung had become an 
important member of colonial society. It had 
been formally named the "Liberty Tree," and 
the ground under it was called "Liberty Hall." 
Banners were often swung from its branches, and 
notices were nailed to its trunk. Fastened firmly 
to the trunk was a tall liberty pole, and when- 
ever any one caught a glimpse of a red flag 


waving from the top of the pole, he knew that the 
Sons of Liberty were to hold a meeting. When 
the Stamp Act was repealed, the Liberty Tree was 
the very center of rejoicing. At one o'clock in 
the morning, the church bell nearest it was rung 
joyfully. At the first rays of dawn, the houses 
about it, even the steeple of the church, all blos- 
somed out with banners, and at night the tree 
itself was aglow with lanterns. In New York 
a liberty pole was set up with a splendid new 
flag on which was inscribed, "The King, Pitt, 
and Liberty."* It almost seemed as if "liberty" 
meant having whatever sort of flag might suit 
one's whim. 

This New York pole had rather a hard time. 
British soldiers cut it down twice, and when a 
third pole was raised, sheathed with iron around 
its base, they managed to cut that down also, al- 
though it bore the legend, ' ' To His Most Gracious 
Majesty George III, Mr. Pitt, and Liberty." 
The city authorities would not risk planting an- 
other pole on city land, and thereupon the Sons 
of Liberty bought a piece of land for themselves, 
and marched up in brilliant procession; first a 
full band, playing with all its might, then six 
horses, made gorgeous with bright ribbons, 
drawing from the shipyard a fine new pole, 
sheathed in iron two thirds of its length. It was 


escorted by the Sons of Liberty in full numbers. 
Three flags floated over the little procession, but 
their mottoes were not so impressively loyal as 
the earlier ones. These read, "Liberty and Prop- 
erty." Nevertheless, ''liberty" did not yet mean 
separation from the mother country; it meant 
only freedom in making some of their own laws ; 
and what was known as the "Union Flag" did 
not refer to any union of the colonies, but rather 
to the union of Scotland and England. This 
flag, the regular flag of England, was red, with 
the crosses of St. George and St. Andrew on a 
blue field forming the Jack. 

Once, however, more than twenty years before 
the Revolutionary War, there had been some talk 
of a union of colonies, beginning with the sugges- 
tions of the most far-sighted man in America, 
Benjamin Franklin. In 1754, when war between 
France and England was on the point of breaking 
out, there was a meeting at Albany of delegates 
from several colonies. They had come to see if 
they could make sure of the aid of the Six Na- 
tions of Indian tribes; and here the sagacious 
Franklin brought forward his plan for a union. 
His scheme was for the colonies to elect a Grand 
Council, which should meet every year in Phila- 
delphia, to levy taxes, enlist soldiers, plan for de- 
fense, and, in short, to attend to whatever con- 


cerned all the colonies. Whatever affected them 
separately was to be managed by the colony in- 
terested. This Council was to have much the 
same powers as our Congress of to-day; but there 
must be a place in the scheme for the King, 
of course; so Franklin proposed that the King 
should appoint a president who should have the 
right to veto the acts of the Grand Council. This 
was the ** Albany Plan.'* Franklin was much 
in earnest about the matter, and had a cut made 
for the Pennsylvania Gazette picturing a rather 
unpleasant device, a snake sliced uncomfort- 
ably into ten parts, the head marked " NE, " for 
New England, and each of the other pieces with 
the initials of some one of the other nine colonies. 
With the motto, ''Unite or die," this work of 
art appeared for a number of issues at the head 
of the Gazette; but many years passed before 
the colonies began to make any practical use of 
the wisdom of Franklin in 1754. 



When Paul Revere galloped through the vil- 
lages of Middlesex, calling "for the country folk 
to be up and to arm," there was not much spare 
time for collecting flags, and probably when 

"The farmers gave them ball for ball, 
From behind each fence and farmyard wall," — 

they did not trouble themselves to flourish a 
flag before they shot. Yet, if we may trust a 
family tradition, at least one flag waved over the 
plucky farmers. It seems that for a long while 
one member or another of the Page family of 
Bedford had been accustomed to carrying the 
colors of the militia, and therefore when the 
alarm was given and Nathaniel Page started for 
Concord, it was as natural for him to seize his 
flag as his gun. Moreover, this story has the 
bunting to back it up, for the Bedford flag re- 
mained in the Page family until presented to the 
town a century after the close of the war. It is 
rather a pity that it did not come a little sooner, 
for an old lady of Page descent confessed that in 


her giddy girlhood she had irreverently ripped 
otT the silver fringe to make trimming for her 
ball dress. 

The Revolution was fairly on, and two months 
later, the battle of Bunker Hill was fought. 
Possibly the colonists thought of spades rather 
than standards when they were throwing up the 
fortifications, and yet I fancy that to these flag- 
loving fighters a battle without a banner would 
have seemed like an undignified riot. Some 
writers say positively that no flag was to be seen 
— rather a difficult statement to prove. The 
daughter of one of the soldiers declared that 
her father helped hoist the standard known as 
the "New England Flag." ''He called it a ' noble 
flag,' " she said. "It was blue with the red cross 
of St. George in a white corner, and in one sec- 
tion was a pine tree." The artist Trumbull, who 
painted the picture of this battle now in the 
Capitol at Washington, made the flag red instead 
of blue, but both were familiar colonial flags, and 
there is no reason why both should not have 
waved over the famous hill. Tradition says 
that one flag bore the motto, "Come if you 
dare." General Gage is said to have had diffi- 
culty in reading it, but maybe that was because 
of its audacity. Some verses written soon after 
the battle say that 


"Columbia's troops are seen in dread array, 
And waving streamers in the air display" ; — 

but, unluckily, the poet forgot to mention the 
color of those ''waving streamers." In Savan- 
nah, after the battle, but before any news of it 
could have arrived, the independent Georgians 
hoisted a Union flag and suggestively placed two 
pieces of artillery directly under it. New York 
chose a white flag with a black beaver thereon. 
Rhode Island had also a white flag, but with a 
blue anchor instead of a beaver, and a blue can- 
ton with thirteen white stars. Her motto was 
**Hope.** Connecticut meant that there should 
be no mistake in the whereabouts of her regi- 
ments, for she gave them flags of solid color: to 
the first, yellow; the second, blue; the third, 
scarlet; and so on with crimson, white, azure, 
another shade of blue, and orange. For a motto 
Connecticut chose "Qui transtulit sustinet"; 
that is, "He who brought us here sustains us." 
Massachusetts chose for her motto "An Appeal 
to Heaven." Charleston had a blue flag with a 
white crescent in the upper corner next to the 
staff and inscribed upon her banner the daring 
words, "Liberty or Death." Later she adopted 
a rattlesnake flag. Her troops wore blue and had 
silver crescents on the front of their caps, in- 
scribed with the same motto. It is small wonder 


that timid folk were alarmed and whispered to 
one another, "That is going too far; it looks Hke 
a declaration of war." This blue and silver flag 
was planned by Colonel Moultrie. When Fort 
Moultrie — which received this name because of 
his brave defense — was shelled the following 
year, the anxious folk in the town watched with 
troubled faces, for it was doubtful whether the 
little fort with its scant supply of ammunition 
could sustain the attack. Suddenly the crescent 
flag fell from its staff. A groan ran through the 
crowd — Colonel Moultrie had struck his flag! 
** Forward!" cried one among them, and they 
marched to the water's edge to fight for their 
homes. Within the little fort one William Jasper, 
a sergeant, saw that a ball had cut down the flag 
and it had fallen over the rampart. "Colonel," 
he said to his commander, "don't let us fight 
without a flag." "What can you do?" demanded 
Colonel Moutrie, "the staff is broken." Ser- 
geant Jasper was a man of few words and many 
deeds. He leaped through an embrasure, walked 
the whole length of the fort in a heavy fire from 
the ships, caught up the flag, brought it safely 
back, and fastened it to a sponge-staff. Then, 
in the midst of cheers, — in which I fancy the 
British also joined, — he fastened the rescued 
banner upon the bastion. The following day the 


Governor came to the fort, asked for Sergeant 
Jasper, presented him with his own sword, and 
gave him hearty thanks in behalf of his country. 
Then he said, "I will gladly give you a lieu- 
tenant's commission," but the honest man re- 
fused. " I am only a sergeant," he said. " I don't 
know how to read or write, and I am not fit to 
keep company with ofhcers." Colonel Moultrie 
then gave him a roving commission, and he often 
made some little trip with half a dozen men and 
returned with a band of prisoners before any 
one realized that he had gone. The wife of Major 
Elliot presented the regiment with a pair of 
beautiful silken colors, which were afterwards 
carried in the assault upon Savannah. The 
standard-bearers were shot down; another man 
seized them, but he was also shot; then Sergeant 
Jasper caught them and fastened them on the 
parapet, when he too was fatally wounded by 
a ball. "Tell Mrs. Elliot," he said, "that I lost 
my life supporting the colors she gave to our 
regiment." A tablet in honor of the brave ser- 
geant was long ago placed in Savannah. 

The rattlesnake as an emblem seems to have 
been somewhat of a favorite among the colonists. 
Besides Franklin's snake of the many initials — 
which, indeed, might have stood, or coiled, for 
any sort of serpent — there was the one borne by 


Patrick Henry's men when they forced the 
Governor of Virginia to pay for the powder which 
he had carried away from the colonial magazine. 
Then, too, there was a third variety of snake, 
the one that stretched itself across a colonial 
naval flag and proclaimed — from the top of the 
mast — "Don't tread on me." On another flag 
the rattlesnake appeared coiled in the roots of 
a pine tree and ready to strike. The Culpeper 
Minute Men of Virginia had a coiled snake on 
their flag. In the winter of 1 775 there appeared in 
the Pennsylvania Journal an article setting forth 
the propriety of choosing the rattlesnake to 
represent America. The style of the article and 
its keenness are like Franklin, but there is no 
proof that he was its author. Whoever did write 
it notes that the "rattler" is peculiar to Amer- 
ica; that the brightness of its eyes and their lack 
of lids fit it to be an emblem of vigilance. It never 
begins an attack and never surrenders, never 
wounds till it has given warning. The writer had 
counted the rattles on the naval flag, and found 
them to be exactly thirteen, the number of the 
colonies. He had also noted that the rattles were 
independent of one another, and yet most firmly 
united ; and that while one rattle alone is incap- 
able of producing any sound, the ringing of 
the thirteen together is sufficient to alarm the 


boldest man living. Whether Franklin wrote this 
or not, let us at least be thankful that these argu- 
ments did not prevail, and that on the flag of the 
United States there are stars and not serpents. 



Washington, chosen commander-in-chief, set 
out on June 21, 1775, on his eleven-days' ride 
to Boston. From Philadelphia to New York he 
was escorted by the Philadelphia Light Horse 
Troop. It was an escort worth having. Their 
uniform was "a dark brown short coat, faced and 
lined with white ; high- topped boots ; round black 
hat, bound with silver cord ; a buck's tail, saddle- 
cloths brown edged with white, and the letters 
^L.H.' worked on them. Their arms were a car- 
bine, a pair of pistols and holsters; a horseman's 
sword; white belts for the sword and carbine." 
Officers of the militia, the Massachusetts mem- 
bers of the Continental Congress, and many 
others wore also of the company. The horses 
pranced, the music played, and the cavalcade 
started from the Quaker City for the war that 
was to make the country free. The flag that was 
borne before them is now carefully preserved 
between two heavy plates of glass, and is kept 
in the Troop's armory, in a fireproof safe made 
expressly for that purpose. The banner is only 
forty inches long, but its richness makes up for 


its lack of size. It is of yellow silk with heavy 
silver fringe. Around the flag is a graceful run- 
ning vine. The crest is a horse's head. In the 
center are figures representing Fame and Lib- 
erty. Under them is the motto, "For these we 
strive.'* Some verses written many years ago 
say of this flag: — 

"For these we strive; what brighter name 
Can man achieve or beauty see, 
Than worth to share his country's FAME, 
Or perish for her LIBERTY?" 

It is a precious relic for its associations, and still 
more precious because the canton is made of 
thirteen stripes, blue and silver alternating. 
Apparently these stand for the thirteen colo- 
nies, and so far as is known, this was the first 
time that the colonies were represented, as on 
our flag of to-day, by thirteen stripes. 

Before Washington and his escort reached 
New York, couriers reported the battle of Bunker 
Hill. Washington pushed on, and July 2, he had 
his first glimpse of his forces. It must have been 
a discouraging glimpse. A few wore uniforms, 
but most of the men had come in "what they 
had." The men of a few companies were pro- 
vided with tents, others slept in the halls of Har- 
vard College, in the pews of the Episcopal Church, 
or in private houses. Still others had built their 


own huts, of boards, turf, sailcloth, stones, or 
brush. Powder and artillery were scanty, and 
the commander-in-chief had been furnished with 
no money. Perhaps this was not so remarkable, 
however, for the members of the Continental 
Congress had no power to collect taxes, and in 
reality had no control over any money except 
what was in their own pockets. Officers and men 
chatted together as freely as if in their own 
homes ; and if an order did not impress a man as 
being wise, he sometimes stopped and patiently 
explained to the officer why he thought another 
course was better. 

Twelve of the most independent companies, 
and yet the most vigilant and best disciplined of 
all, were composed of backwoodsmen who had 
come on foot from four to eight hundred miles. 
A little later, five Indians came to Cambridge 
to help fight for liberty. They were welcomed 
cordially and entered the service. It is prob- 
able that every little company marched to Cam- 
bridge under its own colors, but of course there 
was no flag representing the colonies as a whole. 

Immediately after the battle of Bunker Hill, 
Major-General Israel Putnam took up his stand 
on Prospect Hill. One month later he called to- 
gether all the troops under his command, and 
read them the statement issued by the Conti- 


nental Congress which declared just why the 
colonies had had recourse to arms. The chaplain 
made an address and a prayer, at the end of 
which the troops responded, ''Amen." Then 
there was unfurled a scarlet standard, which 
it is said John Hancock had just presented to 
General Putnam and his men in recognition of 
their bravery at Bunker Hill. Tradition says this 
standard bore on one side the motto of Connecti- 
cut, "Qui transtulit sustinet," and on the other 
a pine tree and the motto of Massachusetts, 
**An Appeal to Heaven." 

It is a little strange that the Massachusetts 
colonists did not put the likeness of an elm on 
any of their banners, for so much of their his- 
tory was associated with the ''Liberty Elm." A 
few flags on both land and sea were inscribed 
"Liberty Tree," but no exercise of the imagina- 
tion can make the pictured tree look in the least 
like an elm. Under the Liberty Elm of Boston 
the meetings of the Sons of Liberty were held, 
as has been said, and here it was that the reso- 
lutions were adopted which resulted in dropping 
three hundred and forty chests of tea into Boston 
Harbor. The Liberty Tree of Charleston, South 
Carolina, was a beautiful live-oak. It is said 
that under this tree Christopher Gadsden, even 
before the Stamp Act, ventured to speak of the 


possible independence of the colonies. Here, as in 
Boston, the patriots came together to discuss the 
way to hberty, and with hand clasped in hand 
solemnly promised that when the hour for re- 
sistence should come, they would not be found 
unready. There is something refreshing in the 
thought of all the free, open-air discussion that 
went on under the Liberty Trees. There was no 
stifling of thought in closed rooms with bolted 
doors. Every new idea, daring as it might be, 
was blown upon by the free winds of heaven. 
Naturally, the British commanders hated these 
trees and thoroughly enjoyed destroying them 
whenever they had opportunity. The Boston 
tree was cut down even before the battle of Lex- 
ington. In 1780 Sir Henry Clinton cut down the 
live-oak in Charleston, piled its severed branches 
over the stump, and set fire to them. Even the 
iron-girt Liberty Pole of New York was cut 
down by the red coats in 1776. It is little wonder 
that Thomas Paine's poem on the "Liberty 
Tree " was so roundly applauded. This closes : — 

" But hear, O ye swains, — 't is a tale most profane, 

How all the tyrannical powers. 
Kings, Commons, and Lords, are uniting amain, 

To cut down this guardian of ours. 
From the East to the West, blow the trumpet to arms, 

Through the land let the. sound of it flee, 
Let the far and the near all unite with a cheer, 

In defense of our Liberty Tree." 


THE ''grand union FLAG*' 

During the summer following the battle of 
Bunker Hill, the colonies had a congress with- 
out authority, a commander-in-chief without 
money, and an army without discipline, equip- 
ments, or flag — or rather, with so many flags 
that they must have had little significance ex- 
cept to the respective groups of men who had 
marched under each. Before Christmas a flag 
was designed and made, but how, where, and 
by whom is not known. Neither Washington nor 
Franklin gives any information, and the Journal 
of Congress says nothing about its designer or 
maker. It is true that a committee of three, — 
all signers of the Declaration of Independence 
a few months later, — Benjamin Franklin, of 
Pennsylvania, Benjamin Harrison, of Virginia, 
whose son Benjamin was afterwards to become 
President of the United States, and Thomas 
Lynch, of South Carolina, were sent by Con- 
gress to Cambridge, to discuss with Washington 
and others many necessary questions, but there 
is no proof that the design of a flag was among 


them. The flag, however, was made. This was 
what is known as the "Grand Union Flag." 
The British flag, red with a blue union, marked 
by the upright cross of St. George and the di- 
agonal cross of St. Andrew, was known as the 
''Union Flag," because it typified, as has been 
said before, the union of England and Scotland. 
The new flag retained the blue union with its 
two crosses, but instead of a red field it had red 
and white stripes. These thirteen stripes repre- 
sented the thirteen colonies; the blue union sug- 
gested that the colonies still clung to the mother 

Where the idea of using stripes came from is a 
question that has never been solved. The Phila- 
delphia Troop had thirteen stripes on their ban- 
ner, but they were blue and white. Washing- 
ton's coat of arms contained red and white 
stripes; but Washington was too modest a man 
to suggest using his own family arms, and as to 
any one's suggesting it for him, it must be re- 
membered that he was not yet the revered 
''Father of his Country," but simply a Virginia 
planter of forty-three years who had been suc- 
cessful in fighting the Indians, and who, because 
of his good judgment and uprightness of char- 
acter, had been made a member of the Virginia 
Legislature and then of the Continental Congress. 


The flag of the Netherlands — but chosen thirty 
years after the Pilgrims left that country for 
America — was red, white, and blue, in three 
horizontal stripes. The ensign of the English 
East India Company was a flag of thirteen hori- 
zontal red and white stripes with a white canton 
containing a red St. George's Cross; but there is 
no reason to suppose that this inspired the flag 
of the colonies. Bunting was scarce and Franklin 
was always a thrifty soul. If that committee of 
three did design the flag, it is not at all unlikely 
that Franklin suggested utilizing the standards 
they already had, and changing their character 
by stitching on white stripes. To deface the flag 
of Britain was a serious ofl^ense, and maybe it 
was thought just as well that the name of the 
originator of this "Grand Union" should not be 
on record. The flag was first raised on the ist 
of January, 1776, in what is now Somerville, 
on Prospect Hill, and was saluted with thirteen 
guns and thirteen rousing cheers. It was seen by 
the British troops in Boston, and for some rea- 
son they took it as a sign of submission brought 
about by the King's hostile proclamation, which 
they supposed had been read in Cambridge. 
Washington wrote : — 

Before the proclamation came to hand, we had 
hoisted the Union Flag in compliment to the United 


Colonies. But, behold, it was received in Boston as a 
token of the deep impression the speech had made 
upon us, and as a signal of submission. By this time, 
I presume, they begin to think it strange that we have 
not made a formal surrender of our lines. 

The colonists had adopted a flag, but all sorts 
of colors continued to be borne on both sea and 
land. On the sea the favorite seems to have 
been a white flag displaying a green pine tree. 
One year after the battle of Lexington, Massa- 
chusetts formally decreed that this flag should 
be used on her vessels, and that their officers 
should wear a green and white uniform. Even 
two years later than this, the Pine-Tree Flag 
was borne by floating batteries on the Delaware 
River. Sometimes the British ran up an Ameri- 
can flag to deceive the colonial vessels, and 
sometimes the colonists ran up a flag made of 
horizontal red and white stripes to persuade the 
British that it was one of their own signal flags. 
Sometimes rattlesnake flags were used. 

Congress ordered the building of war vessels 
as promptly as possible, five cruisers first of all. 
The Alfred, on which John Paul Jones was lieu- 
tenant, became the flagship of Commander-in- 
Chief Esek Hopkins. This vessel was of English 
build and had been employed in commerce for 
nine or ten years, making two voyages to the In- 


dian Ocean during that time. She had space for 
two hundred and twenty men, and had sixteen 
guns, carried for the benefit of pirates. She had 
been put in full repair and had now become a 
frigate of twenty-eight guns. Such was the first 
vessel of the Continental Navy. An old account 
of the embarkation of Commodore Hopkins at 
Philadelphia says : — 

The Alfred was anchored at the foot of Walnut 
Street. On a brilliant morning early in February, 
1776, gay streamers were seen floating from every 
masthead and spar on the river. At nine o'clock a full- 
manned barge threaded its way among the floating 
ice to the Alfred, bearing the commodore, who had 
chosen that vessel for his flagship. He was greeted 
with thunders of artillery and the shouts of the mul- 

When he stepped on board the deck of the 
Alfred, Captain Saltonstall gave a signal, and 
Lieutenant Jones hoisted a new flag prepared for 
the occasion. It is believed to have displayed a 
union with thirteen stripes crossed by a rattle- 
snake in some position, with the ominous motto, 
''Don't tread on me." When the flag reached 
the mast-head, the crowds cheered and the guns 
fired a salute, — as well they might, for this was 
the first ensign ever flung to the breeze on an 
American man-of-war. Paul Jones appreciated 


the honor of raising it, but he was no admirer of 
the rattlesnake flag. In his journal he wrote: — 

I was always at loss to know by what queer fancy 
or by whose notion that device was first adopted. For 
my own part, I never could see how or why a venom- 
ous serpent could be the combatant emblem of a 
brave and honest folk fighting to be free. Of course I 
had no choice but to break the pennant as it was given 
to me. But I always abhorred the device. 

Three weeks after the Alfred was put in com- 
mission, the little fleet sailed away from Phila- 
delphia amid the cheers of thousands of people. 
One of the eye-witnesses said that the ships wore 
the Union Flag with thirteen stripes in the field. 
Of the admiral's flag an English writer said, "We 
learn that the vessels bearing this flag have a 
sort of commission from a society of people at 
Philadelphia, calling themselves the continental 
congress." Scornfully as he spoke of Congress, 
there is at least one record of which it may 
be proud. Franklin, under its authority, issued 
letters of marque with a lavish hand, but, hard- 
pressed as the colonists were, he bade John Paul 
Jones "not to burn defenseless towns on the 
British coast except in case of military necessity ; 
and in such cases he was to give notice, so that 
the women and children with the sick and aged 
inhabitants might be removed betimes." More- 


over, he bade all American cruisers if they 
chanced to meet Captain Cook, the great English 
explorer of that day, to ''forget the temporary 
quarrel in which they were fighting and not 
merely suffer him to pass unmolested, but offer 
him every aid and service in their power." 



The ''society of people at Philadelphia calling 
themselves the continental congress" had had, 
so far as records go, nothing to do with choos- 
ing any flag. The ''Grand Union "unfurled at 
Cambridge was regarded as symbolizing the 
union of colonies, but no one knows who designed 
it or chose it. To alter the design of our flag 
to-day would be a very serious matter, but the 
colonies were so accustomed to the making of 
flags according to the whim of some militia 
company or some sea captain that the appear- 
ance of a new design, especially one so slightly 
changed from the familiar flag of the mother 
country, cannot have created any great sensa- 
tion. Moreover, flags were not for sale at depart- 
ment stores; they had to be ordered, and in this 
time of war, bunting was not easy to procure. 
Flag-makers were few, and many a captain 
sailed away with a flag manufactured by his 
wife's own unaccustomed hands. 

July 4, 1776, less than fifteen months after the 
battle of Lexington, it was declared in Congress 


^'That these united colonies are, and of right 
ought to be, free and independent states." June 
14,1 ^']'], the following resolution was adopted : — 

Resolved, That the flag of the thirteen United States 
be thirteen stripes, alternate red and white; that the 
union be thirteen stars, white in a blue field, repre- 
senting a new constellation. 

So much for the share that Congress had in the 
flag. The story of the making of the first flag with 
stars and stripes is as follows. Betsy Ross, or, to 
speak more respectfully, Mrs. Elizabeth Griscom 
Ross, lived on Arch Street, Philadelphia, in a 
tiny house of two stories and an attic. She was 
called the most skillful needlewoman in the city, 
and there is a tradition that before Washington 
became commander-in-chief, she embroidered 
ruffles for his shirts — quite an important branch 
of fine sewing in those days. Whether she ever 
embroidered the great man's ruffles or not, it is 
said that, whenever folk wanted any especially 
fine work done, they always went to "Betsy 
Ross." She could do more than sew, for she could 
draw freehand the complicated patterns that 
were used in quilting, the supreme proof of artistic 
ability in the household. One day three gentle- 
men entered her house through its humble door- 
way. One was her uncle by marriage. Colonel 
Ross; one is thought to have been Robert Morris ; 


one was General Washington. The commander- 
in-chief told her that they had come from Con- 
gress to ask her if she could make a flag. ''I 
don't know," she replied, ''but I can try." Then 
they showed her a rough sketch of a flag and 
asked what she thought of it. She replied that 
she thought it ought to be longer, that a flag 
looked better if the length was one third greater 
than the width. She ventured to make two more 
suggestions. One was that the stars which they 
had scattered irregularly over the blue canton 
would look better if they were arranged in some 
regular form, such as a circle or a star or in par- 
allel rows. The second suggestion was that a 
star with five points was prettier than one with 
six. Some one seems to have remarked that it 
would be more difficult to make; and thereupon 
the skillful little lady folded a bit of paper and 
with one clip of her scissors produced a star with 
five points. The three gentlemen saw that her 
suggestions were good, and General Washington 
drew up his chair to a table and made another 
sketch according to her ideas. 

Mrs. Ross could make wise suggestions about 
flags, but how to sew them she did not know; 
so it was arranged that she should call on a 
shipping merchant and borrow a flag from him. 
This she soon did. He opened a chest and took 


out a ship's flag to show her how the sewing was 
done. She carried it home to use as a guide, and 
when she reached the Httle house on Arch Street, 
she set to work to make the first flag bearing the 
stars and stripes. To try the effect, it was run 
up to the peak of one of the vessels in the Dela- 
ware, and the result was so pleasing that it 
was carried into Congress on the day that it was 
completed. Congress approved of the work of 
the little lady. Colonel Ross told her to buy all 
the material she could and make as many flags 
as possible. And for more than fifty years she 
continued to make flags for the Government. 

This is the account that has come down to us, 
not by tradition merely, but by written state- 
ments of Mrs. Ross's daughters, grandchil- 
dren, and others, to whom she often told the 
story. Mrs. Ross says that this sample flag was 
made just before the Declaration of Independ- 
ence, although the Resolution endorsing it was 
not passed until June 14, 1777. This, however, 
would not argue to the incorrectness of the ac- 
count, for Congress had a fashion of writing with 
the utmost brevity the results of its delibera- 
tions, and not putting in a word about the dis- 
cussions that must have taken place before the 
passing of a resolution. Affairs of the utmost im- 
portance were on hand, and after all it was the 


usefulness and convenience of the flag, rather 
than its sentiment or the fact of its having 
congressional authority, that was most in the 
minds of men, and it is not impossible that this 
design was in use long before the date of its offi- 
cial recognition by Congress. The one real 
weakness in the story is its lack of contempo- 
rary evidence. 

The significance of the new flag no one has 
expressed better than Washington. ''We take 
the star from Heaven," he said, ''red from our 
mother country, separating it by white stripes, 
thus showing that we have separated from her, 
and the white stripes shall go down to posterity 
representing liberty." 

On the day of the passing of the resolution 
about the Stars and Stripes, another one was 
passed, which read as follows: — 

Resolved, That Captain John Paul Jones be ap- 
pointed to command the ship Ranger. 

"The flag and I are twins, born the same 
hour," said Captain Jones. The Ranger was 
launched in Portsmouth, New Hampshire, and 
there her captain went to take command. She 
had no flag, but the captain was a favorite where- 
ever he went, and a group of Portsmouth girfs 
soon held a "quilting party," biit made a flag 


instead of a quilt. Moreover, as silk enough of 
the proper colors could not be found in the stores 
of Portsmouth, they made it from breadths of 
their best silken gowns, red, white, and blue, the 
story declares. Then Jones sailed away to see 
how his little Ranger would behave when she 
met a British man-of-war. He soon found out, 
for the Ranger and the Drake met in combat, and 
for the first time a British man-of-war struck her 
colors to the new flag. This same little silken flag 
was the first to receive a genuine foreign salute. 
Early in 1778 the Ranger spoke the French fleet, 
off Brest Roads. Captain Jones was willing to 
take chances in a sea fight, but not in the mat- 
ter of a salute, and he sent a courteous note to 
the French commander, informing him that the 
flag worn by the Ranger was the new American 
standard, which had never yet received a salute 
from any foreign power. " If I offer a salute, will 
it be returned gun for gun?" he queried. The 
reply was that the same salute would be given 
as to an admiral of Holland, or any other re- 
public; that is, four guns less than the salute 
given. Captain Jones anchored in the entrance 
of the bay and sought for further information. 
He found that the reply of the admiral was 
correct and according to custom. Therefore, on 
the following day, he sailed through the French 


fleet, saluting with thirteen guns, and receiving 
nine. This was an acknowledgment of American 
independence, and the first salute ever paid by 
a foreign naval power to the Stars and Stripes. 
It is true that a salute had been given to the 
American brig, the Andrea Doria, before this, 
by the Governor of one of the West Indian Is- 
lands; but a salute which his Government im- 
mediately disowned and for which he was called 
home is rather an individual than a national 
salute. Then, too, there is no proof that the 
flag flown by the Andrea Doria was the Stars 
and Stripes. 

After a while Jones was put in command of 
the Bon Homme Richard, a larger vessel than 
the Ranger, but she flew the same little silken 
flag. Off Flamborough Head he came up with 
the British Serapis. After two hours of fighting. 
Captain Pearson of the Serapis shouted, in a 
moment's lull, ''Have you struck your colors 
yet?" **I haven't yet begun to fight," was 
Jones's reply. The two ships were lashed to- 
gether, guns burst, cartridges exploded, wide 
gaps were torn out of the sides of both vessels. 
"Have you struck?" cried the British captain. 
"No!" thundered Paul Jones. At last the Ser- 
apis yielded; but the Bon Homme Richard was 
fast sinking. Captain Jones left her and took 


possession of the Serapis. The American vessel 
rolled and lurched and pitched and plunged. 
The little silken flag that had never been con- 
quered waved in the morning breeze for the last 
time, and then went down, ''flying on the ship 
that conquered and captured the ship that sank 

When Paul Jones returned to America he met 
one of the young girls who had given him the 
flag. He told her how eagerly he had longed to 
give it back into the hands of those who had 
given it to him four years earlier. "But, Miss 
Mary," he said, "I couldn't bear to strip it 
from the poor old ship in her last agony, nor 
could I deny to my dead on her decks, who had 
given their lives to keep it flying, the glory of 
taking it with them." In his journal he wrote 
eloquently and almost as simply: — 

No one was now left aboard the Richard but her 
dead. To them I gave the good old ship for their 
coffin, and in her they found a sublime sepulcher. 
She rolled heavily in the long swell, her gun-deck 
awash to the port-sills, settled slowly by the head, 
and sank peacefully in about forty fathoms. The 
ensign-gaff, shot away in action, had been fished and 
put in place, soon after firing ceased, and our torn 
and tattered flag was left flying when we abandoned 
her. As she plunged down by the head at the last, her 
taffrail momentarily rose in the air; so the very 


last vestige mortal eyes ever saw of the Bon Homme 
Richard was the defiant waving of her unconquered 
and unstricken flag as she went down. And as I had 
given them the good old ship for their sepulcher, I 
now bequeathed to my immortal dead the flag they 
had so desperately defended, for their winding sheet! 

This is the story of the Portsmouth flag. At 
first its truth was accepted without a doubt; 
then it was seriously questioned. Within the last 
few years, new evidence in the shape of family 
tradition has strengthened its position. 



Probably the flag made by the skillful fingers 
of Mrs. Elizabeth Griscom Ross was sewed with 
the tiniest of stitches imaginable; but it is ab- 
solutely certain that the flag which made its 
appearance August 3, 1777, at Fort Schuyler, 
afterwards Fort Stanwix, was not put together 
with any such daintiness of workmanship. For 
twenty days the little fort in the New York 
wilderness, where Rome now stands, was be- 
sieged by British and Indians. Reinforcements 
brought the news of the adoption of the new 
flag. The troops within the fort had no flag, and 
therefore, in true American fashion, they set to 
work to make one. There was not even a coun- 
try store to draw upon for materials, so they 
made the best of what they had. As the story 
has been handed down, a white shirt provided the 
white stripes and the stars, and the petticoat of 
a soldier's wife the red stripes. As for the blue 
ground for the stars, it was cut from the cloak of 
Captain Abram Swartwout. The result was not 
very elegant, but it was a flag, and it was the 


flag, and the besieged men were as proud of it 
and stood for it as bravely as if it had been made 
of damask with the daintiest of needlework. 
August 22, 1777, the fort was relieved, and after 
a few days Captain Swartwout began to be anx- 
ious about his blue cloak. Colonel Peter Ganse- 
voort, who commanded the fort, had promised 
him a new one to take the place of the one which 
he had sacrificed for the flag, but it had not 
arrived. Seven days he waited. At the end of 
the seventh day he sent a note from Poughkeep- 
sie, where he then was, back to the fort, say- 
ing: "You may Remember Agreeable to Your 
promise, I was to have an Order for Eight Yards 
of Broad-Cloath, on the Commissary for Cloath- 
ing of this State In Lieu of my Blue Cloak, which 
we Used for Coulours at Fort Schuyler. An op- 
portunity Now presenting itself, I beg You to 
send me an Order.'* Broadcloth was broadcloth 
in those days, and a ''Blue Cloak'* was not so 
easily obtained. It is no wonder he wrote it with 
capitals. It is to be hoped that the good captain 
received his order ; but it must have been a very 
large cloak to require eight yards of "Broad- 

Another interesting banner was that borne by 
Count Pulaski, a gallant Pole, who came to help 
in the struggle for freedom. He visited Lafayette 


when the Frenchman was wounded and in the 
care of the Moravian Sisterhood in Bethlehem, 
Pennsylvania. The embroidery of these Sisters 
was very beautiful, and Pulaski engaged them to 
make him a banner, which they did. On one side 
were the letters ''U.S.," and on the other the 
thirteen stars in a circle, surrounding an eye 
which is rather uncomfortably set in a triangle. 
They made a mistake in spelling their Latin 
motto, but the crimson banner, with its silver 
fringe and its exquisite embroidery, was very 
handsome. Longfellow's poem about this ban- 
ner, "Hymn of the Moravian Nuns of Beth- 
lehem," is excellent poetry, but hardly accu- 
rate history. It is quite probable that the good 
women sent the banner forth with their blessing, 
but it is rather doubtful whether they said any- 
thing like the following : — 

"Take thy banner, and if e'er 
Thou shouldst press the soldier's bier, 
And the muffled drums should beat 
To the tread of mournful feet, 
Then this crimson flag shall be 
Martial cloak and shroud for thee"; — 

for the beautiful little banner was only twenty 
inches square! When Lafayette visited this 
country in 1824, this little flag was borne in the 
procession which welcomed him to Baltimore. 


In the midst of the grief and horrors of war, 
there was one day when all the armed ships in 
the Delaware River were ablaze with the colors 
of the United States in token of rejoicing. It 
was July 4, 1777, the first anniversary of the 
Declaration of Independence. Thirteen cannon 
were fired, a great dinner was served to the mem- 
bers of Congress and the officials of the army and 
of the State. The Hessian band, which had been 
captured at Trenton six months previously, per- 
formed some of their merriest music. Toasts 
followed the dinner, each one honored by a dis- 
charge of artillery and small arms and a piece 
of music by the Hessians. At night the city was 
illuminated and the streets resounded with hur- 
rahs and the ringing of bells. Then came fire- 
works, which began and ended with thirteen 
rockets in honor of the thirteen United States. 

''Thirteen" appeared not only as the number 
of stars on the flag, but everywhere else, and at 
Valley Forge, in the rejoicing over the new alli- 
ance with France, the officers marched up to 
the place of entertainment thirteen abreast and 
with arm linked in arm. A disrespectful Eng- 
lish paper declared that the "rebels " ate thirteen 
dried clams a day, that it took thirteen '' Con- 
gress paper dollars " to equal one English shilling, 
that "every well-organized rebel household has 


thirteen children, all of whom expect to be ma- 
jor-generals or members of the high and mighty 
congress of the thirteen United States when they 
attain the age of thirteen years." 

When the war had come to an end, the artist 
Copley was in London working on the portrait 
of an American, Elkanah Watson. In the back- 
ground of the portrait was a ship supposed to be 
bearing to America the news of the acknowledg- 
ment of Independence. The rising sun was shin- 
ing upon the place where the flag should have 
been, but no flag was there. Copley's studio was 
often visited by the royal family, so he waited. 
But a day came when the artist heard the speech 
of the King acknowledging the Independence of 
America. He went straightway to his studio and 
painted in the flag floating in the rays of the 
rising sun. 

Soon after the close of the war, a wide- 
awake skipper of Nantucket, who had some 
whale oil to sell, appeared at London. Nantucket 
was so helpless for both offense and defense that 
it had remained neutral, and the captain had 
received from Admiral Digby a license to go to 
London. A London magazine of the time said, 
**This is the first vessel which has displayed the 
thirteen rebellious stripes of America in any 
British port." Nobody knew exactly what to 


do, but apparently the whale oil was soon sold, 
for the enterprising whaler returned directly to 

In October, 1783, most of the British troops 
had sailed away from the United States, but Sir 
Guy Carleton was delayed in New York waiting 
for vessels. When the day came for him to leave 
the city, a strong, determined woman who kept 
a boarding-house brought out a United States 
flag and ran it up on a pole in front of her house. 
Down the street came a British officer with head- 
long speed. "We do not evacuate this city until 
noon. Haul down that flag! " he shouted angrily. 
''That flag went up to stay, and it will not be 
hauled down!" declared the indignant house- 
keeper, and went on sweeping in front of her 
door. "Then I will pull it down myself," thun- 
dered the irate officer, and set to work. But the 
halyards were entangled, and all the officer's 
swearing and scolding did not help matters. The 
militant lady of the broom then applied her 
weapon to the officer. The powder flew from his 
wig in a cloud, and at last he himself had to fly, 
leaving the flag to float serenely on the morning 
breeze. This encounter has been called the last 
battle of the Revolution. 

Before leaving Fort George, at the foot of 
Broadway, in New York, the British soldiers mis- 


chievously nailed their flag to the top of the pole, 
took down the halyards, greased the pole from 
top to bottom, and knocked off the cleats. They 
did not know how well the American boys could 
climb; in a very short time new cleats were nailed 
on, the English flag was pulled down, and the Stars 
and Stripes floated from the top of the pole.- 

News of King George's proclamation did not 
reach the United States till the middle of April, 
and then there was rejoicing, indeed. It is no 
wonder that the joy of the country at the closing 
of the war burst out in celebrations and silken 
flags. The diary of President Stiles, of Yale, 
tells what took place in New Haven. It reads 
as follows : — 

April 24, 1783. Public rejoicing for the Peace in 
New Haven. At sunrise thirteen cannon discharged 
in the Green, and the continental flag displayed, being 
a grand silk flag presented by the ladies, cost 120 dol- 
lars. The stripes red and white, with an azure field 
in the upper part charged with thirteen stars. On the 
same field and among the stars was the arms of the 
United States, the field of which contained a ship, a 
plough, and three sheaves of wheat; the crest an eagle 
volant; the supporters two white horses. The arms 

were put on with paint and gilding. It took yards. 

When displayed it appeared well. 

The patriotic ladies who presented the flag 
had taken the arms and motto, *' Virtue, Liberty, 


Independence," from the title-page of a family 
Bible; but unluckily, this Bible, having been 
published in Philadelphia, displayed the arms 
and motto, not of the United States, but of 
Pennsylvania. The moral is, learn the arms of 
your country. 



The worthy fathers of our country were long- 
sighted men. In many respects they peered far 
into the future and they laid well the foundations 
for a great republic. One thing, however, they 
forgot ; when they chose a design for a flag with 
thirteen stripes and a circle of thirteen stars, 
they did not realize that the number of States 
would probably increase, and that these States 
would wish to be represented on the flag. In 

1 79 1 Vermont was admitted as a State, and in 

1792 Kentucky also came into the Union. In 
1 794 the Senate passed a bill increasing to fi f teen 
the number of both stripes and stars. This bill 
was sent to the House, and then came exciting 
times. Some members thought it of great im- 
portance not to offend new States by giving them 
no recognition on the flag. Others called it dis- 
honorable to waste time over what one man 
called "a consummate piece of frivolity," when 
matters *'of infinitely greater consequence" 
ought to be discussed. Another declared that 


the Senate sent the bill for the want of something 
better to do. Yet another honorable member did 
not think it worth while either to adopt or reject 
the proposed law, but supposed "the shortest 
way to get rid of it was to agree to it." Whether 
to **get rid of it" or not, the bill was passed, and 
went into effect May i, 1795. 

This flag of fifteen stripes and fifteen stars was 
the one worn by the frigate Constitution, "Old 
Ironsides." When, in 1830, it was reported that 
this vessel, with its magnificent record, was to be 
broken up. Holmes wrote his stirring poem, "Old 
Ironsides," which ends: — 

"Oh, better that her shattered hulk 

Should sink beneath the wave; 
Her thunders shook the mighty deep, 

And there should be her grave; 
Nail to the mast her holy flag, 

Set every threadbare sail, 
And give her to the god of storms, 

The lightning and the gale!" 

It was this flag under which we went forth to 
three wars, each one fought to uphold the rights 
of American citizens. The first was with France, 
the second with Tripoli, and the third with Great 
Britain. It had long been the custom for nations 
using the Mediterranean Sea to pay tribute to 
the pirates of Tripoli. In 1800 Captain Bain- 
bridge carried the annual tribute to Algiers. It 


seemed that the Dey wished to send an ambas- 
sador to Constantinople, and under threat of 
capture Captain Bainbridge was ordered to 
carry him there. The captain obeyed, but very 
unwilHngly. When the new flag appeared at 
Constantinople, it was reported to the Sultan 
that a ship from the United States of America 
was in the harbor. "What's that?" he de- 
manded. " I never heard of that nation." "They 
live in the New World which Columbus dis- 
covered," was the reply. The Sultan had heard 
of Columbus, and he sent to the frigate a bou- 
quet of flowers in welcome, and a lamp in token 
of friendship. 

The Dey of Algiers became dissatisfied with 
the tribute paid by America, and declared 
haughtily that if he did not receive from our 
country a handsome present within six months, 
he should declare war. This he did, but to his 
great surprise a small American fleet, under the 
fifteen stars and stripes, sailed up to his city and 
began to bombard it. It was not long before he 
became the very picture of meekness. He freed 
all his American captives, paid well for all the 
property that he had destroyed, and the Medi- 
terranean Sea became safe for commerce. 

In 1803 the United States purchased from 
France the immense Louisiana Territory. The 


French flag was hauled down and the flag of the 
United States was raised in token of the change 
of ownership. This country had first been in 
the hands of Spain, and the Spaniards had pre- 
sented flags to various Indians. When Lieuten- 
ant Z. M. Pike made a journey of exploration in 
the new territory, he came to an Indian village 
where there was quite a display of Spanish ban- 
ners. The Lieutenant made a little speech to the 
Indians, and said among other things that the 
Spanish flag at the chief's door ought to be given 
up to him and the flag of the United States put 
in its place. The Indians listened, but made 
no reply. Lieutenant Pike spoke again to the 
same effect. "Your nation cannot have two fa- 
thers," he said. **You must be the children of 
the Spaniards or else of the Americans." The red 
men sat in silence awhile, then an old man arose, 
walked slowly to the door, took the Spanish flag 
down, and put the American in its place. Then 
he gave the flag of Spain to his followers, bidding 
them, "Never hoist this again — while the Amer- 
icans are here." Surely, the old chief must have 
been akin to Dr. John Cotton of Colonial fame. 
This scene occurred in what is now Kansas, and 
is thought to have been the first raising of the 
United States flag in that State. 
The banner of fifteen stripes and fifteen stars 


has a proud record, for this was the flag that in- 
spired Francis Scott Key to write ''The Star- 
Spangled Banner." Every one knows the story 
of the poem, how the author and an agent for 
the exchange of prisoners went on board a Brit- 
ish vessel in 1 8 14 to try to secure the release of a 
physician who had been captured. The English 
admiral granted their request, but as he was 
about to attack Fort McHenry, he told them 
that they would not be permitted to return at 
once, but must remain on their own vessel, with 
a British guard, until the fort was reduced. If 
this order had been carried out, they would have 
been on board to-day, for the fort never was re- 
duced. All day the Americans could see the 
Stars and Stripes flying over its ramparts, in 
spiteof attacks by sea and by land. Night came, 
and it was only by "the rockets' red glare, the 
bombs bursting in air," that they knew whether 
the fort yet stood. At length the firing ceased, 
and all was darkness. They could do nothing but 
wait for the first rays of morning in the hope that 
"by the dawn's early light" they could catch a 
glimpse of the flag and know that the fort had 
not yielded, that "our flag was still there," and 
that the British were retreating. Then it was that 
Key wrote, on the back of an old envelope, "The 
Star-Spangled Banner," and put into it such a 


thrill of sincerity that it is just as throbbing with 
life and patriotism as it was on that September 
dawn a century ago. The banner that inspired 
the poem is in the National Museum in Wash- 

Francis Scott Key died in Baltimore in 1843, 
and is buried in Frederick, Maryland. Over his 
grave a large national flag flies day and night, 
never removed save when wear and tear make 
a new flag necessary. In Baltimore a noble 
monument has been reared in his honor. It is 
surmounted by the figure of the poet, who waves 
his hat with one hand and with the other points 
joyfully toward the fort. The figure is so life-like 
that one almost expects it to cry, — 

" And the star-spangled banner in triumph shall wave 
O'er the land of the free and the home of the brave." 

A few months after ''The Star-Spangled Ban- 
ner" was written, a plan was formed to rear 
in the city of Baltimore a monument in honor 
of George Washington. It was fitting that the 
place of his birth should also be marked, and a 
few days before the laying of the corner-stone 
of the monument, a little company sailed from 
Alexandria, Virginia, to Pope's Creek, West- 
moreland County, where Washington was born. 
With them they carried a simple freestone slab 


on which was chiseled his name and the date of 
his birth. Wrapped in the banner of fifteen stars, 
it was borne reverently to its resting-place by 
the hands of the descendants of four Revolu- 
tionary patriots. 



"Time makes ancient good uncouth," said 
Lowell, and so it was with the flag. The flag of 
fifteen stars and fifteen stripes that was decreed 
in 1795 then represented each State; but in less 
than one year it was out of date. Tennessee had 
come into the Union. Then followed Ohio, Louis- 
iana, and Indiana. Here were four States with no 
representation in the colors of the country. Then, 
too, people began to realize that in giving up the 
thirteen stripes they had lost their old significant 
"Thirteen," and dropped a valuable historical 
association. At length the matter came before 
Congress, and for nearly sixteen months it re- 
mained there. Occasionally there was some little 
discussion about it. One member proposed that 
the matter be postponed indefinitely. " Are you 
willing to neglect the banner of freedom?" de- 
manded another. Yet another thought it un- 
necessary to insist upon thirteen stripes, and 
thought they might as well fix upon nine or 
eleven or any other arbitrary number as thirteen. 


The committee pleaded for the significant thir- 
teen, and so it went on. At length Peter H. 
Wendover, of New York, through whose efforts 
Congress was held to its duty, called the atten- 
tion of the House to the fact that the Govern- 
ment itself was paying no respect to its own laws 
in regard to the flag; that the law demanded 
fifteen stripes, but that Congress was at that 
moment displaying a banner of thirteen stripes ; 
that the navy yard and the marine barracks 
were flying flags of eighteen stripes ; and that dur- 
ing the first session of the preceding Congress 
the flag floating over their deliberations had had, 
from some unknown cause or other, only nine 

It is small wonder that after such an arraign- 
ment as this the lawmakers aroused themselves. 
The following bill was passed, and was signed by 
President Monroe, April 4, 1818: — 

Section i. Beit enacted, etc., That from and after 
the fourth day of July next, the flag of the United 
States be thirteen horizontal stripes, alternate red 
and white; that the union have twenty stars, white 
in a blue field. 

Section 2. Be it further enacted, That on the 
admission of every new State into the Union, one 
star be added to the union of the flag; and that such 
addition shall take effect on the fourth of July next 
succeeding such admission. 


So it was that the flag of the United States 
was finally decided upon. Captain S. C. Reid 
designed it, and his wife made a specimen flag, 
which was hoisted on the flagstaff of the House 
of Representatives a few days after the law 
legalizing it was passed. Forty-one years later, 
in 1859, Congress formally thanked Captain 
Reid. The one weak point in this law was that 
the arrangement of the stars on the blue field 
was left to the taste of the owner of the flag. 
Captain Reid arranged them in one large star; 
but it was evident that if this plan was continued, 
as new States were admitted, the stars would 
become too small to be seen distinctly. The 
Navy Commissioners issued the order that in 
naval flags the stars should be arranged in five 
rows, four stars in a row; but for many years 
merchant vessels paid small attention to this 
decree. Indeed, in 1837 the Dutch Government 
inquired, with all respect, "What is the American 
flag?'* Twenty years later an observant man 
in Jersey City amused himself on the Fourth of 
July by noting the numerous fashions in which 
the stars were arranged. He said that all flags 
had the thirteen stripes — though not always 
in the proper order — but that he had counted 
nine different fashions in which the stars were 
arranged. They appeared in one large star, in a 


lozenge, a diamond, or a circle, and one vessel 
in the river flaunted an anchor formed of stars. 
It was suggested that Congress ought to order 
some regular arrangement, but Congress did not 
take the hint. The Secretary of War and the 
Secretary of the Navy gave orders in 1912, after 
the admission of New Mexico and Arizona, that 
the stars, now forty-eight, should be arranged in 
six rows of eight stars each. This was approved 
by the President, but no decree has been passed 
by Congress. 

Until 1866 our country's flag was manufac- 
tured in a foreign land. Bunting in a flag has 
a hard life. It must meet sun, wind, and storm; 
it must be light enough to float at every breeze 
and strong enough to endure severe wear. At- 
tempts had been made many years earlier to 
make bunting in the United States, and flags 
of home manufacture had been tried again and 
again, but they had never stood the tests. In 
1865, however, Congress put a duty of forty per 
cent on imported bunting, and also made it 
lawful for the Government to purchase its flags 
in the United States. With this duty manufac- 
turers could compete with the lower wages paid 
in England, and now it became worth while to 
set to work in earnest. Within a year the thing 
had been done. A company in Lowell, Massachu- 


setts, presented to the Senate a flag manufac- 
tured in the United States. It was hoisted over 
the Capitol, and for the first time this country, 
then ninety years old, floated over its Congress a 
banner of bunting woven and made "at home.'* 
This banner stood all the tests, and soon the 
price of the material was greatly reduced. Since 
the manufacture of this flag all bunting used in 
flags for the navy has come from Lowell. It must 
be of a fixed weight and strength and must be 
absolutely fast color in sun and rain. These 
flags are made in the Brooklyn Navy Yard, and 
they must be accurate in every detail. Even the 
number of stitches to the inch is a matter of rule. 
After the stripes have been sewed together and 
the stars stitched upon the canton, the hoist, or 
end of the flag which is to be next to the staff, is 
firmly bound with canvas, and the lines, etc., 
attached. Then the flag is stamped with the 
date. Many silken flags are used in the navy, but 
these are made entirely by hand. 

A warship must have not only her own flags, 
but those of foreign countries, sometimes two 
hundred and fifty or more. Some of these flags 
are of very complicated design, and the flag- 
makers tried the experiment of painting the de- 
signs on the bunting. This was not a success, 
because the flags stuck together, and now the 


whole design is worked out in bunting. The 
navy makes its own flags, but the War Depart- 
ment buys what are needed. Manufacturers 
make large numbers for general sale; between 
nine and ten million a year even in times of 

The pet name, "Old Glory," is believed to 
have been given to the flag by Captain William 
Driver. He was born in Salem, Massachusetts, 
became a shipmaster, and at length made his 
home in Nashville, Tennessee. When the Civil 
War broke out, he stood boldly by the Union, 
even though his own family were against him. 
More than thirty years before this date, just as 
he was starting on a voyage, some of his friends 
made him a present of a handsome American 
flag. When the breeze first caught it and spread 
out its folds. Captain Driver exclaimed, **01d 
Glory!" and ''Old Glory" it was to him all the 
years of his life. The flag went to Tennessee with 
him, and was hung out on every day of public 
rejoicing. When the war broke out, his Confed- 
erate neighbors tried their best to get possession 
of that flag; but they did not realize the resources 
of the old captain. Sailors know how to sew, and 
he had carefully quilted his beloved banner into 
his comforter. No wonder that he had not the 
least objection to having his house searched for 


it. When the Union troops entered the city, 
Captain Driver asked permission to run up his 
flag over the State Capitol. This was granted, 
and with an escort he marched to the building 
and ran up the flag. As he stood gazing at it with 
tears in his eyes, he said, "I have always said 
that if I could see it float over that Capitol, I 
should have lived long enough; now Old Glory 
is up there, gentlemen, and I am ready to die." 
The captain's own particular "Old Glory" was 
full of years and weakened by service, and on the 
following day he reverently took it down and ran 
up a flag that was new and strong. For a quarter 
of a century he saw the Union flag float over the 
Capitol of his chosen State. Then, at his death 
in 1886, his own ''Old Glory" was sent to the 
Essex Institute at his birthplace. 



"Old Glory" has flown over the battle-fields 
of three wars; the Mexican, the Civil War, and 
the war with Spain. In the war with Mexico 
victory depended upon taking the City of Mexico, 
and the path to that lay in the capture of the 
strong castle of Chapultepec. Long before sun- 
rise one bright September morning, the Ameri- 
can guns began to roar. All day long the Ameri- 
cans fired from below and the Mexicans from 
above. Fortunately for the attackers, the aim 
of the Mexicans was anything but accurate, 
and in twenty-four hours the American troops 
were pushing forward up the hillside, through a 
grove full of sharpshooters, over rocks and gul- 
lies, even over mines, which the Mexicans had no 
chance to set ofT . Cannon roared and volleys of 
musketry were fired at the assailants, but they 
dashed over the redoubt, up, still up, to the 
escarpment, and over it they tumbled. Mean- 
while the Mexicans were standing on the city 
walls and peering out from the spires of the 
cathedral. They saw, as the Americans pushed 


on and up, the Stars and Stripes appear, now to 
the right, now to the left, as point after point 
was taken. Now the Americans had reached the 
main works. The scaHng-ladders were planted 
and the men scrambled over the wall. Even 
then the Mexicans were not without a faint hope, 
for their banner still floated over the high- 
est pinnacle. Suddenly it disappeared, and the 
Stars and Stripes took its place. The victory had 
been won. On the second day after the first gun 
was fired at Chapultepec, the American troops 
were following their flag into the City of Mexico. 
The Civil War began with the firing upon Fort 
Sumter. Shot came in a whirlwind, half a score 
of balls at a time. The woodwork blazed, the 
brick and stone flew in all directions. Red-hot 
balls from the furnace in Moultrie dashed down 
like a pitiless haijstorm. The barracks were 
ablaze, streams of fire burst out of the quarters. 
Ninety barrels of powder were rolled into the 
water lest it should explode in the awful heat. 
The men were stifled with fumes from the burn- 
ing buildings. Over the horrors of this attack 
the Stars and Stripes floated serenely from the 
staff, flashing out, as each gust of wind tossed 
the clouds of smoke aside for a moment, the 
glories of the red, white, and blue, clear and calm 
and unscathed. 


Beams fell with a crash, ammunition in one 
magazine exploded, black clouds of smoke filled 
the fort, and for hours the men covered their 
faces with wet cloths to keep from suffocating. 
Nine times the flagstaff was struck by a shot, 
and at the ninth the flag fell. Lieutenant Hall 
dashed into the storm of balls, caught up the 
flag, and brought it away. The halyards were 
cut and tangled. The flag could not be raised, 
but it was nailed to the staff, and in the midst of 
the incessant fire. Sergeant Peter Hart fastened 
it up on the ramparts. The fort surrendered, but 
not the flag; for as Major Anderson and his men 
left the burning ruins, they saluted ''Old Glory" 
with fifty guns, then lowered it, and, as the 
Major stated to the Government, "marched 
out of the fort with colors flying and drums 

This was on April 14, 1861. On April 14, 1865, 
when the war was virtually over. Major Ander- 
son, now General Anderson, was, by order of 
President Lincoln, called to Fort Sumter to 
raise again the flag which he had so unwillingly 
lowered. A special steamer carried from New 
York to the fort a number of prominent citi- 
zens. Hundreds came from elsewhere by land to 
Charleston and were taken to the fort by vessel. 
Two hundred officers of the navy were present 


and many army officers. After the opening ex- 
ercises, Sergeant Hart opened a big carpetbag 
and drew forth the identical flag that had been 
hauled down four years earUer. The banner was 
unfurled, the assemblage cheered to the echo, and 
slowly the beloved banner rose to its old position, 
every one trying his best to catch hold of the 
rope and help raise it. Hats were waved and the 
old fort rang with cheers. The band struck up 
"The Star-Spangled Banner." A salute was 
fired by the guns on Fort Sumter, and this was 
responded to by every fort and battery that had 
fired upon Sumter in April, 1861. Henry Ward 
Beecher, orator of the day, made a thrilling 
address. Of the flag he said : — 

There flies the same flag that was insulted. In the 
storm of that assault this glorious ensign was often 
struck; but, memorable fact, not one of its stars was 
torn out, by shot or shell. It was a prophecy. . . . 
Lifted to the air, to-day it proclaims, after four years 
of war, "Not a State is blotted out!" 

Hail to the flag of our fathers, and our flag! Glory 
to the banner that has gone through four years black 
with tempests of war, to pilot the nation back to 
peace without dismemberment! And glory be to 
God, who, above all hosts and banners, hath ordained 
victory, and shall ordain peace! ... In the name of 
God, we lift up our banner, and dedicate it to Peace, 
Union and Liberty, now and forevermore. 


A few years later General Anderson died. He 
was buried at West Point and was carried to his 
grave wrapped in the flag that he had defended 
so bravely. On the death of his wife the flag 
passed by her gift into the hands of the War 

One of the most interesting flags of the recent 
war with Spain was borne by the First Regi- 
ment of the United States Volunteer Cavalry. 
A squadron of men for this regiment left Phoenix, 
Arizona, on their way to the field of war. It was 
noticed that they had no flag. The women of 
the Relief Corps attached to the Grand Army of 
the Republic took the matter in hand, for if this 
was not a case where relief was needed, where 
should one be found? 

Night and day were the same to these ener- 
getic women. They bought silk and they sewed, 
all day and all night. The stores of Phoenix did 
not provide just the right sort of cord, so the 
staff of the battle-flag was daintily adorned with 
a knot of satin ribbon, red, white, and blue. 
Then the flag was carried to camp, and presented 
with all courtesy and dignity to the two hundred 
men who were to form a part of the First Regi- 
ment of the United States Volunteer Cavalry, 
better known as the "Rough Riders." 

The little silken flag came to glories that it had 


not dreamed of, for the regular bunting flags 
were scarce, and therefore it held the most prom- 
inent place in parades and was even set up as 
guest of honor before the tent of Colonel Leon- 
ard Wood. In the attack on Santiago, the little 
party that first landed at Daiquiri, a small town 
on the coast a few miles from the city, car- 
ried the flag with them. On a transport in the 
harbor an officer from Arizona, observing the 
troops climb the hill, had seen the raising of 
the flag and discovered with a glass what it was. 
As the story is told : — 

He threw his hat to the deck, jumped to the top of 
the bulwark, and yelled: "Howl, you Arizona men, 
— it's our flag up there!" 

And the men howled as only Arizona cowboys 
could. Some one on the hurricane deck grabbed the 
whistle cord and tied it down, the band of the Sec- 
ond Infantry whisked up instruments and played 
"A Hot Time" on the inspiration of the moment, 
and every man who had a revolver emptied it over the 
side. Almost in an instant every whistle of the fifty 
transports and supply vessels in the harbor took up 
the note of rejoicing. Twenty thousand men were 
cheering. A dozen bands increased the din. Then 
guns of the warships on the flanks joined in a mighty 
salute to the flag of the Nation. And the flag was the 
flag of the Arizona squadron. 

The Arizona flag led the regiment in the fight 
of Las Guasimas, where three thousand Intrenched 
Spaniards were driven back by nine hundred un- 


mounted cavalry; it was at the front all through 
the heat of the battles of Kettle Hill and San Juan 
Hill ; it waved over the trenches before Santiago, and 
was later borne through the captured city to the 



One of the greatest achievements of our flag 
in peace was the opening of Japan. In 1852 
Commodore M. C. Perry was sent with a letter 
from President Fillmore to prepare the way for 
a treaty of peace and friendship and commerce 
with Japan. Its delivery was a matter of much 
ceremony. After a long delay a day was set for 
its reception. When the time had come, the 
officers in full uniform, the marines in blue and 
white, the sailors in navy blue and tarpaulins, 
and last of all the Commodore entered the boats. 
As the Commodore stepped into his barge, a 
salute of thirteen guns was given. Then the 
two bands struck up lively tunes and the boats 
made for the shore. 

Along the beach were ranged nine tall crim- 
son standards, surrounded by flags of all sorts 
and colors. Five or six thousand soldiers were 
drawn up in line, and the hills behind them 
were crowded with people. When the Ameri- 
cans came to land, a procession was formed. 
First, the marines and sailors, then the one flag of 


the procession, the Stars and Stripes, its brilliant 
colors flashing in the bright sunshine. It was 
borne by the two tallest, broadest-shouldered 
men among the sailors of the squadron. After 
the flag came two of the younger men, carrying a 
rosewood box mounted with gold and carefully 
wrapped in a scarlet cloth. In this were the cre- 
dentials of the Commodore and the letter of the 
President. These were written on vellum, and 
the seals were attached by cords of silk and 
gold, ending in tassels of gold. Then came the 
Commodore, and on either side of him was a tall 
negro of fine proportions and armed to the teeth. 
After the Commodore walked the officers of the 
squadron. Commodore and officers were escorted 
into the handsomely decorated hall of recep- 
tion. The court interpreter asked if the letter 
was ready. The two pages, guarded by the two 
stalwart negroes, were summoned and placed 
the letter upon a handsome box of red lacquer, 
which was ready to receive them. The Commo- 
dore made a formal bow. The bands played our 
national airs, and all returned to the vessels as 
ceremoniously as they had come. 

This was the beginning of intercourse between 
the United States and Japan. Two years later 
a treaty was signed, and in i860 an embassy 
from Japan visited this country. 


So it was that Japan was opened to the world. 
In 1901 the Japanese Minister of Justice said: 
''Commodore Perry's visit was, in a word, the 
turn of the key which opened the doors of the 
Japanese Empire. Japan has not forgotten — 
nor will she ever forget — that, next to her 
reigning and most beloved sovereign, whose 
rare virtue and great wisdom is above all praise, 
she owes her present state of prosperity to the 
United States of America." "Are you coming 
over here to fight us?" a young Japanese in this 
country was playfully asked. 'Tight the United 
States?" he exclaimed. "The United States is 
our friend." And drawing himself up to his full 
height, he said proudly, "The Japanese do not 
forget. We know what your Commodore Perry 
and your country have done for us." 

The American flag was first seen in China in 
1784. The Chinese said it was "as beautiful as 
a flower," and for many years they always spoke 
of it as the "flower flag." 

A custom of great significance and value, that 
of raising the home flag over legations and con- 
sulates in foreign lands whenever a home holiday 
comes around, is due to the tact and ready wit 
of one of our Ministers to Sweden, William W. 
Thomas, Jr. The following is his own account 
of the event: — 


On taking possession of the archives and property 
of the United States at Stockholm, I was surprised to 
find there was no American flag there. Talking with 
my colleagues, the Ministers of other countries, I was 
informed that no foreign Minister at Stockholm ever 
hoisted his country's flag, and that to do so would be 
considered a breach of diplomatic etiquette. 

What was I to do? I did not wish to offend my 
good friends, the Swedes; that was the last thing a 
Minister should be guilty of. And I certainly did not 
want to see an American holiday go by without 
hoisting the American flag from the American Lega- 
tion. The question troubled me a great deal. 

All at once a thought seized me, like an inspiration. 
I sent to America for a flag. I procured flagstaff and 
halyards, and from my own drawings I had carved 
an American eagle, which was gilded and perched on 
top of the flag pole. Flag, eagle, and staff I concealed 
in the Legation, and bided my time. 

Undoubtedly the greatest character Sweden has 
ever produced is Gustavus Adolphus. His life and 
deeds belong not to Sweden along, but to the world. 
Well, when the anniversary of the death and victory 
of this great captain of the Swedish host came round, 

— the 6th of November, 1883, — and when the great 
choral societies of Stockholm, bearing banners and 
followed by vast multitudes of the Swedish populace, 
marched through the streets of Sweden's capital, 
and gathered about the mausoleum on the Island 
of Knights, where lies the mighty dead, sang paeans 
in his praise, then it happened, somehow, that, re- 
gardless of precedent or custom, the flag of the free 
republic — aye! flag, flagstaff, golden eagle, and all 

— was run out from the American Legation ; and the 
starry banner of America waved in unison with the 


yellow cross of Sweden, in honor of the mightiest 
warrior for the freedom of our faith. 

This act was everywhere approved in Sweden. It 
was praised by both the people and the press. After 
this, it may well be believed, the flag of America 
floated unchallenged in the capital of the Northland. 
It waved on high on the birthday of Washington, on 
that Memorial Day when we decorate the graves of 
our brave boys in blue who saved the Union, and on 
the Fourth of July, that gave the Republic birth. 
But I hoisted our flag impartially, on Swedish holi- 
days as well as our own; and the Stars and Stripes 
floated out as proudly on the birthday of King Oscar 
as on that of Washington. 

** If any man attempts to haul down the Amer- 
ican flag, shoot him on the spot," commanded 
General Dix; but the United States may well 
be proud of having herself hauled down her 
flag on one occasion not many years ago. After 
the Spanish-American War had been fought, 
the treaty of peace with Spain put Cuba into 
the hands of the United States, and the star- 
spangled banner was raised and saluted. This 
was in 1899. The three years following this act 
were busy ones with the War Department, for 
in its control was left the management of all 
Cuban affairs. Cuba was cleaned up, the yel- 
low fever stamped out, schools were established, 
peace restored, a constitution adopted by the 
people, and a president elected. May 20, 1902, 


was the date set for the sovereignty of Cuba to 
pass into the hands of the Cubans. The island 
had been made free, and now she was coming to 
her own. Havana was in her best. Flags floated 
from every house. Ships displayed both the 
American and the Cuban flags. When the mo- 
ment arrived, General Leonard Wood read the 
transfer, and the President-elect signed it in the 
name of the new Republic. To free Cuba from 
oppression the United States had entered into 
war. Our country sought nothing for itself, and 
now the freedom of the island was attained, and 
the American forces were to be withdrawn. 

After the signing of the transfer Governor- 
General Wood loosened the halyards and the 
star-spangled banner was lowered, having ac- 
complished nobly that for which it had been 
raised. As it sank slowly down the Union salute 
of forty-five guns was fired. Then, by the hands 
of General Wood, the Cuban flag was hoisted 
to its position and floated proudly over a free 
country. A national salute of twenty-one guns 
was fired in its honor, and the history of the 
Cuban Republic had begun. As the New York 
Sun said, "No country ever before conquered a 
territory at great sacrifice to set up a govern- 
ment other than its own." 

In the hands of Admiral Robert E. Peary our 


flag has won the honors of the Northland. Many 
others had gone far north ; for Peary it was re- 
served to go farthest north, to the Pole itself. 
This was no chance success, brought about by 
fine equipment and favorable weather; it was 
the fair result of careful preparation and hard 
work. The Admiral wrote in his journal: — 

The Pole at last ! The prize of three centuries, my 
dream and goal for twenty years, mine at last ! I can- 
not bring myself to realize it. 

It all seems so simple and commonplace. As Bart- 
lett said when turning back, when speaking of his 
being in these exclusive regions, which no mortal had 
ever penetrated before, "It is just like everyday!" 

A little later, in acknowledging with gratitude 
the generous aid which he had received, the 
Admiral wrote: — 

Their assistance has enabled me to tell the last of 
the great earth stories, the story the world has been 
waiting to hear for three hundred years — the story 
of the discovery of the North Pole. 

Such is the history of the flag of the United 
States of America from the time when a little 
group of colonies dared to raise their own stand- 
ard and oppose their feeble strength and their 
slender resources to the trained armies and the 
ample wealth of England. 

This was a century and a half ago. The Re- 


public has come of age and has accepted her 
rightful share of the responsibilities of the world. 
The mother country rejoiced to do her honor, 
and on one brilliant April morning in 191 7 the 
cities of England flung out her banner beside 
their own. In London the Stars and Stripes were 
everywhere — in the hands of the people in the 
streets, on private houses, on public buildings, 
even on the "Victory Tower" of Westminster 
Palace, where before that day no other flag save 
the Union Jack or the royal standard had ever 
been raised. In the historic cathedral of St. Paul 
four thousand people had come together to 
thank God for the alliance between the mother 
country and her eldest child, that in this war of 
the world "they should go forth and try the mat- 
ter in fight by the help of God " — to quote the 
text of the Bishop of London. The two flags, 
of Great Britain and of the United States of 
America, hung side by side over the chancel rail. 
The thousands of people rose with reverence and 
sang, first, "The Star-Spangled Banner," and 
then, "God Save the King." And so it was that 
Great Britain and the United States took their 
stand shoulder to shoulder in the world-wide 
struggle to make sure "that government of the 
people, by the people, for the people, shall not 
perish from the earth." 



Except the cross there is nothing that the 
American should hold more sacred than the flag 
of the United States, because of its record in 
peace and in war, and because it stands for the 
rights and the freedom of one hundred million 

** Sign of a nation great and strong, 
To ward her people from foreign wrong." 

There are definite rules in regard to the use 
of the flag. The following are the most necessary 
to know : — 

The flag should be raised at sunrise and low- 
ered at sunset. It should not be left out at night 
unless under fire. It should not be allowed to 
touch the ground. If possible, a pole rather than 
a staff should be used. 

In raising a flag to half-mast or half-staff, 
it should be run to the top of the pole, and then 
lowered the width of the flag. Before being 
retired, it should be run to the top again. On 
Memorial Day the flag should be at half-mast 


until noon, and at the peak from noon until 

When the flag goes by, rise if you are sitting ; 
halt if you are walking, and take off your hat. 

In decorating, never drape the flag; always 
hang it flat. If the stripes are horizontal, the 
Union should be in the left upper corner: if they 
are perpendicular, in the right upper corner. If 
our flag is crossed with the flags of other coun- 
tries, or carried in a parade beside them, it 
should always be at the right. 

In unveiling a monument, the flag should 
never be allowed to drop to the ground, but so 
arranged that it can be drawn up and will then 
float over the monument. 

If draped over a casket, the blue field should 
be at the head. If used as the covering of an 
altar, nothing except the Bible should be placed 
upon it, and the union should be at the right. 

Distress at sea is indicated by hanging the 
flag union down. 

Always stand when ''The Star-Spangled Ban- 
ner" is played. 

For those people who, whether maliciously 
or ignorantly, show any disrespect to the flag, 
strenuous laws have been passed in most of the 
States. In Massachusetts, a post of the Grand 


Army or a camp of Spanish War veterans may 
put the name of the organization upon the 
flag, but no other lettering is permitted. Any 
one who mutilates the flag or in any way treats 
it with contempt is likely to fare worse than did 
John Endicott in colonial days. The same re- 
spect is required to be shown to the flags of all 
countries with which the United States is at 

The representation of the flag must not be 
used to advertise merchandise, but it may be 
used on any publication designed to give in- 
formation about the flag, or to promote patri- 
otism, or to encourage the study of American 

June 14, the anniversary of the day in 1777 
on which the flag was adopted, has been chosen 
as "Flag Day." 

The length of a flag should be very nearly 
twice its height, or, to be exact, in the propor- 
tion of 1 .9 to I . The length of the union should 
be three fourths the height of the whole flag; 
the height of the union should be that of seven 

Perhaps a little fancifully, a star has been 
assigned to each State in the order of its rati- 
fication of the Constitution and admission to 
the Union. Beginning at the left upper corner 


and reading each row from left to right, the 
stars of the separate States are as follows : — 

First row 

Delaware December 7, 1787 

Pennsylvania December 12, 1787 

New Jersey December 18, 1787 

Georgia January 2, 1788 

Connecticut January 9, 1788 

Massachusetts February 6, 1788 

Maryland April 28, 1788 

South Carolina May 23, 1788 

Second row 

New Hampshire June 21, 1788 

Virginia June 25, 1788 

New York July 26, 1788 

North CaroHna November 21, 1789 

Rhode Island May 29, 1790 

Vermont March 4, 1791 

Kentucky June i, 1792 

Tennessee June i, 1796 

Third row 

Ohio February 19, 1803 

Louisiana April 30, 1812 

Indiana December 11, 1816 

Mississippi December 10, 18 17 

Illinois December 3, 1818 

Alabama December 14, 1819 

Maine March 15, 1820 

Missouri August 10, 1821 


Fourth row 

Arkansas June 15, 1836 

Michigan January 26, 1837 

Florida March 3, 1845 

Texas December 29, 1845 

Iowa December 28, 1846 

Wisconsin May 29, 1848 

Cahfornia September 9, 1850 

Minnesota May 11, 1858 

Fifth row 

Oregon February 14, 1859 

Kansas January 29, 1861 

West Virginia June 19, 1863 

Nevada October 31, 1864 

Nebraska March i , 1867 

Colorado August i, 1876 

North Dakota November 2, 1889 

South Dakota November 2, 1889 

Sixth row 

Montana November 8, 1889 

Washington November 11, 1889 

Idaho July 3, 1890 

Wyoming July 10, 1890 

Utah January 4, 1896 

Oklahoma November 16, 1907 

New Mexico January 6, 1912 

Arizona February 14, 1912 


January 1-2, 1776: Grand Union Flag (British Union 
and thirteen stripes) hoisted over Washing- 
ton's headquarters at Cambridge, Massachu- 
setts. This was the first real flag of the colonies. 

January 13, 1794: American flag changed by act of 
Congress, owing to two new States (Kentucky 
and Vermont) being admitted to the Union. The 
flag now had two stars and two stripes added to 
it, making fifteen stripes and stars. This was 
the "Star-Spangled Banner," and under this 
flag our country fought and won three wars — 
the so-called naval war with France, in 1798- 
1800; that with the Barbary States in 1 801-1805; 
and that with England in 1812-1815. 

February 3, 1783; First appearance of the American 
flag in a British port by the ship Bedford, 
of Massachusetts, which arrived in the river 
Thames on this date. 

February 8, 1776: Colonial Congressional Committee 
accepted a naval flag, consisting of thirteen 
stripes, alternate red and white, with a rattle- 
snake diagonally across it. 

February 14, 1778: First foreign salute to the Stars 
and Stripes. John Paul Jones entered Quiberon 
Bay, near Brest, France, and received a salute 
of nine guns from the French fleet, under 
Admiral La Motte Piquet. Jones had previously 
saluted the French fleet with thirteen guns. 


March 17, 1776: The first display of the Grand 
Union Flag in Boston was on the day that town 
was evacuated by the British. 

April 4, 1818 : Congress by act decreed a return to the 
original thirteen stripes and a star for every 
State in the Union, to be added to the flag on 
the July 4 following a State's admission to the 
Union. This is the present law in relation to the 

April 24, 1778: John Paul Jones achieved the honor 
of being the first officer of the American Navy 
to compel a regular British man-of-war to strike 
her colors to the new flag. 

June 14, 1777: First strictly American flag decreed 
by Congress, This flag displaced the British 
Union by thirteen stars, and the making of the 
first flag of this design is accredited to Betsy 
Ross of Philadelphia. It contained thirteen 
stripes, alternate red and white, and thirteen 
white stars upon a blue field. 

June 14, 1777: Captain John Paul Jones appointed to 
the command of the Ranger. It was Jones who 
first displayed the Stars and Stripes on a naval 
vessel. It was also he who had previously first 
hoisted "the flag of America " on board the naval 
vessel Alfred in 1775. 

June 28, 1778: First appearance on a foreign strong- 
hold at Nassau, Bahama Islands. The Ameri- 
cans captured Fort Nassau from the British, and 
promptly raised the Stars and Stripes. 

August 3, 1777 : First display of the Stars and Stripes 
on land was over Fort Stanwix, New York . 

August 10, 1831: The name "Old Glory" given to 
our national flag by Captain William Driver, 


of the brig Charles Doggert. The flag was pre- 
sented to the captain and contained one hundred 
and ten yards of bunting. It is said to be now in 
the Essex Institute, at Salem, Massachusetts. 

September ii, 1777: The American flag first carried 
in battle at the Brand3rwine. This was the first 
great battle fought after its adoption by the 
Continental Congress. 

September 13, 1784: The Stars and Stripes first dis- 
played in China by Captain John Green, of the 
ship Empress, in Canton River. The natives 
said it was as beautiful as a flower, and the 
Chinese continued to call it the "flower flag" 
for many years. 

September 30, 1787, -August 10, 1790: The American 
flag completed its first trip around the world, 
borne by the ship Columbia, sailing from Bos- 

October 18, 1867: First official display of the Ameri- 
can flag in Alaska. On this day, at Sitka, the 
capital, the Russian flag was hauled down and 
the American flag run up before the barracks 
and in the presence of both Russian and Ameri- 
can troops. 




Oh, say, can you see, by the dawn's early light, 

What so proudly we hailed at the twilight's last 
Whose broad stripes and bright stars, through the 
perilous fight, 
O'er the ramparts we watched, were so gallantly 
And the rockets' red glare, the bombs bursting in air, 
Gave proof through the night that our flag was still 
Oh ! say, does that star-spangled banner yet wave 
O'er the land of the free and the home of the 

On the shore, dimly seen through the mists of the 
Where the foe's haughty host in dread silence 
What is that which the breeze, o'er the towering 
As it fitfully blows, half conceals, half discloses? 
Now it catches the gleam of the morning's first beam. 
In full glory reflected now shines in the stream, — 
'T is the star-spangled banner; Oh! long may it 

O'er the land of the free and the home of the 


And where is that band who so vauntingly swore 
That the havoc of war and the battle's con- 
A home and a country should leave us no more? 
Their blood has washed out their foul footstep's 
No refuge could save the hireling and slave 
From the terror of flight or the gloom of the grave; 
And the star-spangled banner in triumph doth 

O'er the land of the free and the home of the 

Oh! thus be it ever, wh.n freemen shall stand 

Between their loved homes and the war's deso- 
lation ; 
Blest with victory and peace, may the Heaven- 
rescued land 
Praise the Power that hath made and preserved 
us a nation ! 
Then conquer we must, when our cause it is just, 
And this be our motto — "In God is our trust"; 
And the star-spangled banner in triumph shall 

O'er the land of the free and the home of the 
brave ! 



I WAS never so profoundly touched with the beauty 
of our flag as at night time in one of our immense 
political demonstrations. One of the features of the 
occasion was the sending upward of a mighty stream 
of electric light which, piercing the darkness of the 
night, reached a large flag which had been carried on 
cords a thousand feet from the earth. The scene was 
too impressive for me to describe. I can only say that 
it did seem as though the flag of our country was 
waving from the very battlements of heaven. . . . 
God pity the American citizen who does not love the 
flag; who does not see in it the story of our great, free 
institutions, and the hope of the home as well as 
the Nation. 



Your Flag and my Flag ! 
And how it flies to-day 
In your land and my land 
And half a world away ! 
Rose-red and blood-red 

The stripes forever gleam ; 

Snow-white and soul-white — 

The good forefathers' dream; 

Sky-blue and true blue, with stars to gleam aright — 

The gloried guidon of the day; a shelter through the 


Your Flag and my Flag ! 

And, oh, how much it holds — 
Your land and my land — 

Secure within its folds ! 
Your heart and my heart 

Beat quicker at the sight ; 
Sun-kissed and wind- tossed, 
Red and blue and white. 
The one Flag, — the great Flag — the Flag for me 

and you — 
Glorified all else beside — the red and white and blue ! 

Your Flag and my Flag ! 

To every star and stripe 
The drums beat as hearts beat 

And fifers shrilly pipe ! 


Your Flag and my Flag — 

A blessing in the sky; 
Your hope and my hope — 
It never hid a lie ! 
Home land and far land and half the world around, 
Old Glory hears our glad salute and ripples to the 



Hats off! 
Along the street there comes 
A blare of bugles, a ruffle of drums, 
A flash of color beneath the sky: 

Hats off! 
The flag is passing by ! 

Blue and crimson and white it shines. 
Over the steel- tipped, ordered lines. 

Hats off! 
The colors before us fly; 
But more than the flag is passing by. 

Sea-fights and land-fights, grim and great. 
Fought to make and to save the State: 
Weary marches and sinking ships ; 
Cheers of victory on dying lips; 

Days of plenty and years of peace; 
March of a strong land's swift increase; 
Equal justice, right and law, 
Stately honor and reverent awe; 

Sign of a nation, great and strong 
To ward her people from foreign wrong: 
Pride and glory and honor, — all 
Live in the colors to stand or fall. 


Hats off! 
Along the street there comes 
A blare of bugles, a ruffle of drums; 
And loyal hearts are beating high : 

Hats off! 
The flag is passing by ! 




The flag stands for all that we hold dear — freedom, 
democracy, government of the people, by the people, 
and for the people. These are the great principles for 
which the flag stands, and when that democracy and 
that freedom and that government of the people are 
in danger, then it is our duty to defend the flag which 
stands for them all, and in order to defend the flag 
and keep it soaring as it soars here to-day, undimmed, 
unsullied, victorious over the years, we must be ready 
to defend it, and like the men of '76 and '61, pledge 
to it our lives, our fortunes, and our sacred honor. 



Flag of the heroes who left us their glory, 

Borne through their battle-fields' thunder and 
Blazoned in song and illumined in story, 
Wave o'er us all who inherit their fame! 
Up with our banner bright, 
Sprinkled with starry light. 
Spread its fair emblems from mountain to shore, 
While through the sounding sky 
Loud rings the Nation's cry, — 

Light of our firmament, guide of our Nation, 
Pride of her children, and honored afar. 

Let the wide beams of thy full constellation 
Scatter each cloud that would darken a star ! 
Up with our banner bright, etc. 

Empire unsceptred ! What foe shall assail thee, 
Bearing the standard of Liberty's van? 

Think not the God of thy fathers shall fail thee. 
Striving with men for the birthright of man. 
Up with our banner bright, etc. 

Yet if, by madness and treachery blighted, 

Dawns the dark hour when the sword thou must 


Then with the arms of thy millions united, 
Smite the bold traitors to Freedom and Law ! 
Up with our banner bright, etc. 

Lord of the Universe : shield us and guide us. 

Trusting thee always, through shadow and sun! 
Thou hast united us, who shall divide us? 
Keep us, oh keep us the MANY IN ONE! 

Up with our banner bright. 

Sprinkled with starry light. 
Spread its fair emblems from mountain to shore, 

While through the sounding sky 

Loud rings the nation's cry, — 



"If you are ever tempted to say a word or to do 
a thing that shall put a bar between you and your 
country, pray God in His mercy to take you that 
instant home to His own heaven. Stick by your fam- 
ily, boy; forget you have a self, while you do every- 
thing for them. Think of your home, boy; write and 
send, and talk about it. Let it be nearer and nearer 
to your thoughts, the farther you have to travel from 
it; and rush back to it when you are free. And for 
your country, boy," — and the words rattled in his 
throat, — "and for that flag," — and he pointed to 
the ship, — "never dream a dream but of serving her 
as she bids you, though the service carry you through 
a thousand hells. No matter what happens to you, 
no matter who flatters you or who abuses you, never 
look to another flag, never let a night pass but you 
pray God to bless that flag. Remember, boy, that 
behind all these men you have to do with, behind 
officers, and government, and people even, there is 
the Country Herself, your Country, and that you 
belong to Her as you belong to your own mother. 
Stand by Her, boy, as you would stand by your 



And at the masthead, 

White, blue, and red, 

A flag unrolls the stripes and stars. 

Ah ! when the wanderer, lonely, friendless, 

In foreign harbors shall behold 

That flag unrolled, 

'T will be as a friendly hand 

Stretched out from his native land. 

Filling his heart with memories sweet and endless I 



What shall I say to you, Old Flag? 
You are so grand in every fold, 
So linked with mighty deeds of old, 
So steeped in blood where heroes fell. 
So torn and pierced by shot and shell, 
So calm, so still, so firm, so true, 
My throat swells at the sight of you, 

Old Flag. 

What of the men who lifted you, Old Flag, 

Upon the top of Bunker's Hill, 

Who crushed the Briton's cruel will, 

'Mid shock and roar and crash and scream, 

Who crossed the Delaware's frozen stream, 

Who starved, who fought, who bled, who died. 

That you might float in glorious pride, 

Old Flag? 

Who of the women brave and true, Old Flag, 
Who, while the cannon thundered wild, 
Sent forth a husband, lover, child, 
Who labored in the field by day, 
Who, all the night long, knelt to pray, 
And thought that God great mercy gave, 
If only freely you might wave, 

Old Flag? 


What is your mission now, Old Flag? 

What but to set all people free, 

To rid the world of misery, 

To guard the right, avenge the wrong, 

And gather in one joyful throng 

Beneath your folds in close embrace 

All burdened ones of every race. 

Old Flag? 

Right nobly do you lead the way. Old Flag, 
Your stars shine out for liberty. 
Your white stripes stand for purity, 
Your crimson claims that courage high 
For Honor's sake to fight and die. 
Lead on against the alien shore ! 
We'll follow you e'en to Death's door. 

Old Flag! 



What is the voice I hear 

On the winds of the western sea? 
Sentinel, listen from out Cape Clear 

And say what the voice may be. 

'T is a proud free people calling loud to a people 
proud and free. 

And it says to them: "Kinsmen, hail; 

We severed have been too long. 
Now let us have done with a worn-out tale — 

The tale of an ancient wrong — 

And our friendship last long as love doth last and 
be stronger than death is strong." 

Answer them, sons of the self-same race, 

And blood of the self-same clan; 
Let us speak with each other face to face 

And answer as man to man, 

And loyally love and trust each other as none but 
free men can. 

Now fling them out to the breeze, 

Shamrock, Thistle, and Rose, 
And the Star-Spangled Banner unfurl with these — 

A message of friends and foes 

Wherever the sails of peace are seen and wher- 
ever the war wind blows — 


A message to bond and thrall to wake, 

For wherever we come, we twain, 
The throne of the tyrant shall rock and quake, 

And his menace be void and vain, 

For you are lords of a strong young land and we 
are lords of the main. 

Yes, this is the voice on the bluff March gale; 

We severed have been too long, 
But now we are done with a worn-out tale — 

The tale of an ancient wrong — 

And our friendship shall last long as love doth 
last and be stronger than death is strong. 



[A portion of an address delivered by the Secretary of the 
Interior to the employees of the Department of the Interior, 
on Flag Day, 1914.] 

This morning as I passed into the Land Office, 
The Flag dropped me a most cordial salutation, and 
from its rippling folds I heard it say: "Good-morning 
Mr. Flag Maker." 

"I beg your pardon, Old Glory," I said, "aren't 
you mistaken? I am not the President of the United 
States, nor a member of Congress, nor even a general 
in the army. I am only a Government clerk." 

"I greet you again, Mr. Flag Maker," replied the 
gay voice; "I know you well. You are the man who 
worked in the swelter of yesterday straightening out 
the tangle of that farmer's homestead in Idaho, or 
perhaps you found the mistake in that Indian contract 
in Oklahoma, or helped to clear that patent for the 
hopeful inventor in New York, or pushed the open- 
ing of that new ditch in Colorado, or made that mine 
in Illinois more safe, or brought relief to the old sol- 
dier in Wyoming. No matter ; whichever one of these 
beneficient individuals you may happen to be, I give 
you greeting, Mr. Flag Maker." 

I was about to pass on, when The Flag stopped me 
with these words : — 

** Yesterday the President spoke a word that made 
happier the future of ten million peons in Mexico; but 


that act looms no larger on the flag than the struggle 
which the boy in Georgia is making to win the Corn 
Club prize this summer. 

"Yesterday the Congress spoke a word which will 
open the door of Alaska; but a mother in Michigan 
worked from sunrise until far into the night, to give 
her boy an education. She, too, is making the flag. 

"Yesterday we made a new law to prevent finan- 
cial panics, and yesterday, maybe, a school teacher in 
Ohio taught his first letters to a boy who will one day 
write a song that will give cheer to the millions of our 
race. We are all making the flag." 

" But," I said impatiently, " these people were only 

Then came a great shout from The Flag : — 

"The work that we do is the making of the flag. 

"I am not the flag; not at all. I am nothing more 
than its shadow. 
_"I am whatever you make me, nothing more. 

" I am your belief in yourself, your dream of what 
a People may become. 

" I live a changing life, a life of moods and passions, 
of heart breaks and tired muscles. 

"Sometimes I am strong with pride, when workmen 
do an honest piece of work, fitting the rails together 

"Sometimes I droop, for then purpose has gone 
from me, and cynically I play the coward. 

"Sometimes I am loud, garish, and full of that ego 
that blasts judgment. 

"But always, I am all that you hope to be, and 
have the courage to try for. 


** I am song and fear, struggle and panic, and en- 
nobling hope. 

" I am the day's work of the weakest man, and the 
largest dream of the most daring. 

** I am the Constitution and the courts, statutes and 
the statute makers, soldier and dreadnaught, dray- 
man and street sweep, cook, counselor, and clerk. 

"I am the battle of yesterday, and the mistake of 

"I am the mystery of the men who do without 
knowing why. 

'* I am the clutch of an idea, and the reasoned pur- 
pose of resolution. 

'*I am no more than what you believe me to be, 
and I am all that you believe I can be. 

" I am what you make me, nothing more. 

" I swing before your eyes as a bright gleam of color, 
a symbol of yourself, the pictured suggestion of that 
big thing which makes this nation. My stars and my 
stripes are your dream and your labors. They are 
bright with cheer, brilliant with courage, firm with 
faith, because you have made them so out of your 
hearts. For you are the makers of the flag and it is 
well that you glory in the making.'* 



Flag of the fearless-hearted, 

Flag of the broken chain, 
Flag in a day-dawn started, 

Never to pale or wane. 
Dearly we prize its colors, 

With the heaven light breaking through, 
The clustered stars and the steadfast bars, 

The red, the white, and the blue. 

Flag of the sturdy fathers, 

Flag of the royal sons, 
Beneath its folds it gathers 

Earth's best and noblest ones. 
Boldly we wave its colors. 

Our veins are thrilled anew 
By the steadfast bars, the clustered stars, 

The red, the white, and the blue. 



Love of country is a sentiment common to all peo- 
ples and ages ; but no land has ever been dearer to its 
people than our own America. No nation has a his- 
tory more inspiring, no country has institutions more 
deserving of patriotic love. Turning the pages of our 
nation's history, the young citizen sees Columbus, 
serene in the faith of his dream ; the Mayflower, bear- 
ing the lofty soul of the Puritan; Washington girding 
on his holy sword; Lincoln, striking the shackles from 
the helpless slave; the constitution, organizing the 
farthest west with north and south and east into one 
great Republic; the tremendous energy of free life 
trained in free schools, utilizing our immense natural 
resources, increasing the nation's wealth with the 
aid of advancing science, multiplying fertile fields 
and noble workshops, and busy schools and happy 

This is the history for which our flag stands; and 
when the young citizen salutes the flag, he should 
think of the great ideals which it represents. The 
flag stands for democracy, for liberty under the law ; 
it stands for heroic courage and self-reliance, for 
equality of opportunity, for self-sacrifice and the 
cause of humanity; it stands for free public education, 

^ From Preparing for Citizenship. Houghton Mifflin Com- 
pany, 1913, 1915- 


and for peace among all nations. When you salute 
the flag, you should resolve that your own life will be 
dedicated to these ideals. You should remember that 
he is the truest American patriot who understands 
the meaning of our nation's ideals, and who pledges 
his own life to their realization. 



Flag of the free heart's hope and home! 

By angel hands to valor given ; 
Thy stars have lit the welkin dome, 

And all thy hues were born in heaven. 
Forever float that standard sheet! 

Where breathes the foe but falls before us, 
With Freedom's soil beneath our feet, 

And Freedom's banner streaming o'er us? 



There is the national flag. He must be cold indeed 
who can look upon its folds, rippling in the breeze, 
without pride of country. If he be in a foreign land, 
the flag is companionship and country itself, with all 
its endearments. Its highest beauty is in what it 
symbolizes. It is because it represents all, that all 
gaze at it with delight and reverence. 

It is a piece of bunting lifted in the air; but it 
speaks sublimely, and every part has a voice. Its 
stripes of alternate red and white proclaim the orig- 
inal union of thirteen States to maintain the Decla- 
ration of Independence. Its stars of white on a field 
of blue proclaim that union of States constituting out 
national constellation, which receives a new star with 
every new State. The two together signify union past 
and present. 

The very colors have a language which was offi-' 
cially recognized by our fathers. White is for purity, 
red for valor, blue for justice; and altogether, bunt- 
ing, stripes, stars, and colors blazing in the sky, make 
the flag of our country to be cherished by all our 
hearts, to be upheld by all our hands. 



My country, *t is of thee, 
Sweet land of liberty. 

Of thee I sing ; 
Land where my fathers died, 
Land of the pilgrims' pride, 
From every mountain-side 

Let freedom ring. 

My native country, thee, 
Land of the noble free, — 

Thy name I love ; 
I love thy rocks and rills. 
Thy woods and templed hills ; 
My heart with rapture thrills 

Like that above. 

Let music swell the breeze, 
And ring from all the trees 

Sweet Freedom's song; 
Let mortal tongues awake, 
Let all that breathe partake. 
Let rocks their silence break, - 

The sound prolong. 


Our fathers' God, to Thee, 
Author of liberty, 

To Thee we sing ; 
Long may our land be bright 
With freedom's holy light; 
Protect us by thy might, 

Great God our King. 


Albany, reached by the Dutch, 2. 

"Albany Plan," 18-19. 

Alexandria, 61. 

Alfred, the, the first American man-of- 
war, 35-38. 

Algiers, the Dey of, yields to America, 58. 

America, 3, 18, 25, 34, 46, 52; overpowers 
the Dey of Algiers, 58. 

" Ancient flag," the, 3. 

Anderson, General , carries the flag from 
Fort Sumter, raises it again in 1865, 
72-73; burial of, 74. 

Andrea, Doria, saluted at one of the West 
Indian Islands, 45. 

Arch Street, home of Betsy Ross, 40, 42. 

Arizona, admitted to the Union, 66; men 
from, at Santiago, 75. 

Asia, sought by Henry Hudson, 1-2. 

Atlantic Ocean, crossed by Henry Hud- 
son, I. 

Bainbridge, Captain, carries Algerian 

ambassador to Constantinople, 57-58. 
Baltimore, 50, 61. 
Bedford, the flag of, 20-21. 
Beecher, Henry Ward, speech of, at Fort 

Sumter, 73. 
Bethlehem, 50. 
Bon Homme Richard, sinking of the, 45- 

Boston, arrival of stamps at, 15-16; flag 

seen in, 34; 35. 
Boston Harbor, 5; tea dropped into, 30. 
Brest Roads, 44. 
Britain, 34. 

British, besiege Fort Stanwix, 48. 
Broadway, 53. 
Brooklyn Navy Yard, flags for the navy 

made in the, 67. 
Bunker Hill, flags at battle of, 21; 28, 29, 

30, 32. 
Bunting, not made in America until 

1866, 66-67. 

Cambridge, Indian volunteers come to, 
29; 34- 39- 

Carleton, Sir Guy, delayed in New York, 

Castle Island, ship made to strike her 
colors at, 5-6. 

Chapuitepec, taken by Americans, 70- 

Charles II, and the New England coin- 
age, II. 

Charleston, the flag of, 11-12; stamped 
paper in, 15; liberty flag in, 16; flag of, 

after Bunker Hill, 22; Liberty Tree of, 
30, cut down by Sir Henry Clinton, 
31; 72. 

China, the American flag in, 79. 

Christina, becomes queen of Sweden, 2. 

Civil War, the beginning of the, 71. 

Clinton, Sir Henry, cuts down the Lib- 
erty Tree in Charleston, 31. 

Columbus, 58. 

Concord, 20. 

Congress, 19, sends a committee to Cam- 
bridge, 32; orders building of cruisers, 
35; orders a flag, 41; 42; 43; celebrates 
the anniversary of the Declaration of 
Independence, 51; decrees the star- 
spangled banner, 63-64. See also 
Continental Congress. 

Connecticut, regimental colors of, 22; 
mocto of, 30. 

Constantinople, Algerian ambassador 
carried to, 58. 

Constitution, frigate, 57. 

Continental Congress, 27; weakness of 
the statement issued by the, 29; Wash- 
ington a member of the, 33; 37; de- 
clares the colonies to be independent 
and decrees a flag, 39-40- 

Cook, Captain, to be aided by all Ameri- 
can cruisers, 38. 

Copley, paints in the flag, 52. 

Cotton, Dr. John, advises concerning the 
King's Flag, 6-7; Indian chief resem- 
bles, 59. 

Cuba, given up to the Cubans, 81-82. 

Culpeper Minute Men, 25. 

Daiquiri, landing place of the Rough 
Riders, 75- 

Declaration of Independence, 32, 40; 
flag made before the, 42; first anniver- 
sary celebrated on the Delaware 
River, 51. 

Delaware River, Swedes settle on the, 2; 
pine-tree flag on the, 35; stars and 
stripes on the, 42; celebration on the, 

Digby, Admiral, licenses a Nantucket 
skipper to go to London, 52. 

Dix, General, 81. 

Driver, Captain Wil'iam, originates the 
name "Old Glory," 68. 

Dutch, establish trading posts on the 
Hudson River, 2; overpowered by the 
English, 2; opposed by New Eng- 
landers, g-io; government of, inquires 
concerning the American flag, 65. 



Dutch East India Company, Hudson 
sails in the employ of the, 1-2. 

Elliot, Major, wife of, presents silken 

colors, 24. 
Endicott, John, cuts the cross from the 

English flag, 4-5; 87. 
England, flag of, brought to Jamestown, 

2-3; 6; 18; 33; flag of, pulled down in 

New York, 54; 66; honors the Stars 

and Stripes, 84. 
English East India Company, flag of the, 

Essex (county), q. 
Essex Institute, " Old Glory " sent to the, 


" Father of his Country," 33. 

Fifteen stripes and fifteen stars, the 
flag of, 56-62. 

Fillmore, President, sends letter to Japan, 

First Regiment of the United States Vol- 
unteer Cavalry, 74. See Rough Riders. 

Flag anniversaries, 90-92. 

"Flag Day," 87. 

Flag etiquette, 85-89. 

"Flower flag," the, 79. 

Flamborough Head, 45. 

Fort George, 53. 

Fort McHenry, attacked by the British, 

Fort Moultrie, 23. 

Fort Schuyler. See Fort Stanwix. 

Fort Stanwix, flag made at, 48-49. 

Fort Sumter, firing upon, begins the Civil 
War, 71-72; flag raised upon, 73. 

Fourth of July, Declaration of Indepen- 
dence on the, 39-40; first anniversary 
of the, SI ; new stars to be added to the 
flag on the, 64; honored in Sweden, 81. 

France, war with, 57; sells the Louisiana 
Territory to the United States, 58. 

Franklin, Benjamin, proposes the "Al- 
bany Plan," 18-19; 24, 25, 26; sent to 
Cambridge by Congress, 32; 34; issues 
letters of marque, 37. 

Frederick, burial place of Francis Scott 
Key, 61. 

French, opposed by the New Englanders, 
9-10; meet the New Englanders at 
Louisburg, 12-13. 

Gadsden, Christopher, speaks of possible 

independence, 30. 
Gage, General, 21. 
Gansevoort, Colonel Peter, commands 

Fort Stanwix, 49. 
George III, proclamation of, 54. 
*' God Save the King," sung in St. Paul's 

Cathedral, 84. 
Grand Army of the Republic, 74, 86. 
Grand Council, part of the " Albany 

Plan," 18-19. 

" Grand Union Flag," made in Cam- 
bridge, 33; designer not known, 34; 39. 

Great Britain, second war with, 57, 84. 

Gustavus Adolphus, plans a settlement in 
America, 2; 80. 

Hall, Lieutenant, rescues the flag at Fort 

Sumter, 72. 
Hancock, John, presents a flag to General 

Putnam, 30. 
Harrison, Benjamin, sent to Cambridge 

by Congress, 32. 
Hart, Sergeant Peter, fastens the flag up 

on the ramparts at Fort Sumter, 72; 

presents it to be raised, 73. 
Harvard College, used by troops, 28. 
Havana, 82. 
Hawthorne, tells the story of Endicott 

and the flag, 4-5; of "The Pme-Tree 

Shillings," 1.1. 
Hemispheie, on a flag, 11. 
Henry, Patrick, 25. 
Hessians, 51. 
Holland, Hudson's vessel sailed from, the 

flag of, i; 44. 
Holmes, "Old Ironsides," poem of, 56. 
House of Representatives, hoists the 

Star-Spangled Banner, 65. 
Hudson, carries the Dutch flag into the 

Hudson River, 1-2. 

Indian, enters embrasure at Louisburg, 

Indiana, 63. 

Indians, Hudson welcomed by the, i; 
method of warfare,_8; given flags, 12; 
volunteer at Cambridge, 29; fought by 
Washington, 33; besiege Fort Schuyler, 
48; raise the American flag, SQ. 

Island of Knights, 80. 

James I, changes the flag of England, 3. 

James II, sends a flag to New England, 
leaves England, 10. 

Jamestown, founded, 2. 

Japan, opened by Perry, 77-7Q; embassy 
from visits the United States, 78; the 
friend of the United States, 79- 

Jasper, William, rescues the flag at Fort 
Moultrie, 23-24. 

Jersey City, 65. 

Jones, John Paul, hoists a flag on the Al- 
fred, 35-37; forbidden to bum defense- 
less towns, 37; put in command of the 
Ranger, 43; receives a flag in Ports- 
mouth and a salute in France, 43-45; 
in command of the Bon Homme Rich- 
ard, 45-47- 

Journal, of Congress, 32. 

Kansas, first raising of the United States 

flag in, 59. , ^ 

Kentucky, admitted as a State, 56. 
Kettle Hill, battle of, 76. 



Key, Francis Scott, writes the "Star- 
Spangled Banner," 60-61. 

King Philip's War, flag used in, g. 

" King's Flag," 3; displayed at Castle 
Island, 6-7. 

Lafayette visited by Pulaski, welcomed 

to Baltimore, 49, 50. 
Las Guasimas, 75. 

" Last battle of the Revolution," 53. 
Lexington, 31; battle of, 35; 39. 
Liberty, the demand for, 14. 
"Liberty Elm," Massachusetts history 

associated with the, 30. 
" Liberty Hall," 16. 

Liberty Pole, cut down in New York, 31. 
"Liberty Tree," in Boston, 16, 17; of 

South Carolina, 30; Paine's poem on 

.the, 31. 
Lincoln, President, 72. 
" Lion of the North," 2. 
London, 52; honors the Stars and Stripes, 

Longfellow, poem of , " Hymn of the Mo- 
ravian Nuns of Bethlehem," 50. 
Louisburg, the New Englanders at, 12-13. 
Louisiana, admitted to the Union, 63. 
Louisiana Territory, purchased by the 

United States, 58. 
Lowell, quotation from, 63. 
Lowell (city), bunting made in, 66. 
Lynch, Thomas, sent to Cambridge by 

Congress, 32. 

Maryland, 61. 

Massachusetts, troubles concerning the 
cross in the flag, 4-7; 8, 9; flag of the 
"Three County Troop" in, 9; use of 
" pine tree" in, 10, 11, 15; flag of, after 
Bunker Hill, 22; 27; motto of, 30; de- 
crees the use of the pine-tree flag, 35; 
66; 68; 86. 

Mediterranean Sea, freed from Pirates, 58. 

Memorial Day, 8x. 

Mexico, war with, 70. 

Mexico, the City of, captured by Ameri- 
cans, 70-71. 

Middlesex (county), 9, 20. 

Monroe, President, signs a bill decreeing 
the use of the Star-Spangled Banner, 

Moravian Sisters, make banner for Pul- 
aski, 50. 

Morris, Robert, 40. 

Mottoes on flags, 12,15, 17, 18, 21, 22, 
25. 28, 30, 36, 54- 

Moultrie, 71. 

Moultrie, Colonel, defends Fort Moul- 
trie, 23-24. 

Nantucket, 52, 53. 
Nashville, 68. 

National Museum, " Star-Spangled Ban- 
ner" ot Francis Scott Key in, 61. 

Netherlands, flag of the, 34. 

New Amsterdam, 2. 

Newbury, flag of the militia b, 8-9. 

Newburyport, patrol, of, 15. 

New England, alliance of the folk of, 9- 
10; 18. 

New Englanders, 10; set off to capture 
Louisburg, 12. 

" New England Flag," the, 21. 

New Hampshire, 15, 43. 

New Haven, peace rejoicing in, 54. 

New Mexico, admitted to the Union, 66. 

New World, 2, 58. 

New York, founded by the Dutch, 2; flag 
of, is; arrival of stamps at, 16; liberty 
pole in, 17-18; hoists flag with beaver 
device, 22; 27; 31; State of, 48; Sir Guy 
Carleton delayed in, 53; 64; 72. 

New York Sun, 82. 

North Pole, discovered by Admiral 
Peary, 83. 

Ohio, admitted to the Union, 63. 

"Old Glory," origin of the name and 

story of, 68-69; in three wars, 70. 
"Old Ironsides," frigate, poem by 

Holmes, 57. 
" Old Thirteen," 2. 

Oliver, hanged in effigy in Boston, 15-16. 
Oscar, king of Sweden, 81. 

Page family, as color bearers, 20. 
Paine, Thomas, poem of on the " Liberty 

Tree," 31. 
Pearson, Captain, yields to John Paul 

Jones. 45. 
Peary, Admiral Robert E., carries the 

flag to the North Pole, 82-83. 
Pennsylvania, 32, 50, 55. 
Pennsylvania Gazette, 19. 
Pennsylvania Journal, 25. 
Perry, Commodore M. C, carries the 

letter of President Fillmore to Japan, 

Philadelphia, 18, 37, 39. 4°. 55- 
Philadelphia Light Horse Troop, escorts 

Washington to New York, 27; flag of 

the, 27-28, 33. 
Phcenix, 74. 

Pike, Lieut. Z. M., and the Indians, 59. 
Pilgrims, 34. 
Pine tree, on flag, 10, 11, 21, 35; used on 

the Delaware River, 35. 
" Pine-Tree Shillings, The," Hawthorne's 

story of, II. 
Pope's Creek, birthplace of Washington, 

Portsmouth, banner in, 15; the " quilting 

party" flag, 43-47- 
Poughkeepsie, 49. 

Prospect Hill, 29; flag raised on, 34. 
Pulaski, Count, the banner of, 497S0. 
Puritans, troubled by the cross in the 

flag, 4-7- 



Putnam, Major-General Israel, 29; Oag 
presented to, by John Hancock, 30. 

Quaker City, the, 27. 

Ranger, command of, given to Jones, 43; 
the flag of, and its salute, 43-45- 

Rattlesnake, on flag of Charleston, 22; a 
favorite emblem, 24-26; 35) 00 flag 
of the Alfred, 37- 

Reid, Captain, S. C, designs the flag with 
stars arranged in one star, 65. 

Revere, Paul, 20. 

Revolutionary War, 21. 

Rhode Island, hoists a flag with the an- 
chor device, 22. 

Roman Catholic Church, the cross re- 
garded as the badge of the, 4. 

Rome, 48. 

Ross, Betsy, makes the first flag with 
stars and stripes, 40-42. 

Ross, Mrs. Elizabeth Griscom, 40, 48. 
See Betsy Ross. 

Ross, Colonel, 40, 42. 

" Rough Riders," 74. 

St. Andrew, the cross of, 3, 18, 33. 

St. George's Cross, united with the cross 
of St. Andrew, 3; cut out of the flag by 
Endicott, 4-5; in the flag sent by 
James II to New England, in the pine- 
tree flag, 10; 18; 21; 32; 34- 

St. Paul, Cathedral of, 84. 

Salem, cross cut from the flag in, 4-5, 8, 

San Juan Hill, the battle of, 76. 

Santiago, attacked by the Rough Riders, 


Savannah, flag hoisted at, 22, 24. 

Scotland, the flag of, 3; 33- 

Serapis, taken by Jones, 4S~47. 

Six Nations, 18. 

Somerville, flag raised in, 34. 

Sons of Liberty, 15; put up a liberty pole, 
17-18; meetings of the, 30. 

South Carolina, 1 1 ; treatment of stamped 
paper in, 14; 30; 32. _ 

Spain, owner of the Louisiana Territory, 
59; war with, 74, 81. 

Spaniards, repulsed at Las Guasimas, 75- 

Spanish-American War, 81, 87. 

Stamp Act, 14; repeal of the, 17; 30. 

Stars and Stripes, iirst salute to, 45; re- 
place the English flag in New York, 54; 
at Fort McHenry, 60; at Chapultepec, 
71; fired upon at Fort Sumter, 71-72; 
raised again at Fort Sumter, 72-73; in 
Japan, 78; in China, 79; in Sweden, 81; 
honored in England, 84; behavior to- 
wards the, 85-87. 

" Star-Spangled Banner, The," written 
by Francis Scott Key, 60-61; played 
at Fort Sumter, 73; sung in St. Paul's 
Cathedral, 84. 

Stiles, President, describes the New 
Haven rejoicing for peace, 54. 

Stockholm, 80. 

Suffolk (county), 9. 

Swartwout, Captain Abram, cloak of, 
used for flag at Fort Stanwix, 48-49- 

Sweden, American flag raised in, 79781. 

Swedes, settle on the Delaware River, 
are overpowered by the Dutch, 2; op- 
posed by the New Englanders, 9-10. 

Tennessee, admitted to the Union, 63; 

Thames, the royal seal tossed into the, 

" Thirteen," 51. 63. 
Thirteen stripes, first used, 28. 
Thomas, William W., raises American 

flag in Sweden, 79-81. 
Trenton, 51. 
Tripoli, war with, 57. 
Trumbull, battle of Bunker Hill painted 

by, 21. 

"Union Flag," 18, 22; made at Cam- 
bridge, 33; worn by the Alfred, 37. 

Union Jack, 3; given to the Indians, 12; 
18; 84. 

United Colonies, 34. 

" Unite or die," motto of the " Albany 
Plan," 18. 

United States, 26, 51, 52; left by British 
troops, 53; 54, 55, 58; buys the Louisi- 
ana Territory, 58-59; flag of, decided 
upon, 63-65; flag manufactured in, 67; 
opens intercourse with Japan, 78; 80; 
flag of, hauled down in Cuba, 81-82; 83, 
84. 87. 

Vermont, admitted as a State, 56. 

" Victory Tower," Star-Spangled Banner 

floats from, 84. 
Virginia, 2, 3, 25, 33, 61. 

Washington, 21; goes to Boston, 27729; 
32; coat-of-arms of, 33; 34; 4°; visits 
Betsy Ross, 41; significance of the 
flag expressed by, 43; 61; monument 
reared to in Baltimore, birthplace of 
marked, 61-62; 81. 

Watson, Elkanah, flag painted m por- 
trait of, by Copley, 52. 

Wendover, Peter H., induces Congress 
to decree the Star-Spangled Banner, 

Westminster Palace, 84. 

Westmoreland County, 61. 

West Point, burial place of General An- 
derson, 74. 

Wood, General Leonard, 75; delivers 
Cuba to the Cubans, 82. 

Yale, S4. . 

D . S . A 


This book is 


under no circumstances to be 
en from the Building 



for III -lui